Fifth annual report of John H. Wheaton, mayor of the city of Savannah for the year ending December 31, 1881 : to which is appended the city treasurer's report and the reports of different departments of the city government

Collection:
Annual Reports of the Mayor of Savannah, Georgia, 1855-1923
Title:
Fifth annual report of John H. Wheaton, mayor of the city of Savannah for the year ending December 31, 1881 : to which is appended the city treasurer's report and the reports of different departments of the city government
Creator:
Savannah (Ga.). Mayor
Contributor to Resource:
Wheaton, John H.
Date of Original:
1880/1881
Subject:
Savannah (Ga.)--Politics and government--Periodicals
Savannah (Ga.). Mayor
Location:
United States, Georgia, Chatham County, Savannah, 32.08354, -81.09983
Medium:
annual reports
Type:
Text
Format:
application/pdf
Metadata URL:
http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/id:dlg_zmos_1881
Digital Object URL:
http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/savannahmayor/pdf/1881.pdf
Holding Institution:
University of Georgia. Libraries
Rights:
Rights Statement information

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V.'
Slyf-5/JFiFTH ANNUAL REPORT
_' ^i ."**' .
JOHN F; WHEATQN,
MAYOR OF THE CITY OF SAVANNAH,
YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31,1881,
TO, WHICH tS APPENDED THE
V.
CITY TREASURER'S REPO-RT,
^r- . ; AND
THE REPORTS OF THE DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF '
THE CITY GOVERNMENT. -
N1 VEFSltY .0 F G 'G RG i
OEORGE N. NI CHOU
r
U//?
X. JO
1 JOHN F. WHEATON, '
.MAYOR OF THE CITY OF SAVANNAH,
FOR THE
EAR ENDING DECEMBER 31,1881,
TO WHICH IS ADDED THE
TREASURER'S REPORT,
AND
lEPORTS OF THE DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS, ; ~
ft
1i
MAYOR'S REPORT.
f
l
CITY OF SAVANNAH,
MATOK'S OFFICE, January "1, 188?.
Fellow-Citizens : I herewith submit for your information a general statement of the situation and condition of the City, in relation to its Finances and Improvements, to which is appended the Reports of the
various Departments of the City Government, showing
in detail the Receipts and Expenditures for the year
1881:
Cash on hand January 1, 1881... $6,170 70
RECEIPTS.
From Real Estate Taxes, 1874... 103 50
From Real Estate Taxes, 1875... 1,290 32
From Real Estate Taxes, 1876... 4,338 35
From Real Estate Taxes, 1877... . 3,608 23
From Real Estate Taxes, 1878... 5,364 51
From Real Estate Taxes, 1879... *8,101 59
From Specific Taxes, 1879...... 225 00 8,326 59
From Real Estate Taxes, 1880... 79,463 03
From Stock in Trade, 1880...... 382 81
From Personal Taxes, 1880...... 88 87
From Specific Taxes, 1880....... 1,831 00
From Commission and Income
Taxes, 1880............... 755 77 82,521 48
From Real Estate Taxes. 1881... 187,622 48 '
From Stock in Trade, 1881...... 13,376 92
From Personal Taxes, 1881...... 15,958 47
From Specific Taxes, 1881....... 26,809 60
From Commission and Income
Taxes, 1881................ 3,504 77 247,272 24
From Licenses................. 22,168 10
From Market.................. 16,216 10
L
HA YOB'S ANNUAL REPORT.
From Jail..................... 116,264 93
From Laurel Grove Cemetery.... 1,457 25
From Water Works............. - 36,069 98
From Harbor and other Fees.... 12,203 70
From Savannah Eiver Improvements. .................... 11,000 00
From City Court............... 165 00
From Bents ................... 4,949 02
From City Lots................ 24,493 36
From Ground Rent............. 33,751 01
From Miscellaneous, to-wit:
Board of Health ............... 1,901 21
Police Uniforms from Fines ..... 4,702 00
Fire Department............... 28 50
Police......................... 413 00
Quarantine.... ................ 2,765 00
Streets and Lanes.............. 584 00
Interest....................... 61 32
Dry Culture................... 200 00
$547,759 40
EXPENDITUBES.
Board of Health................ $28,612 70
City Clocks.................... 350 50
CityCourt..................... 4,813 61
City Lamps.................... 16,970 05
City Lots (new water works site) 4,060 00
City Pumps.................... 2,699 89
Docks and Wharves ............ 347 10
Dry Culture ................... 9,025 97
Fees .... ..................... 1,512 00
Fire Department............... 16,513 75
Interest
Paid Old Coupons.. ........... $ 9,852 32
Paid New Coupons............. 171,146 25
Paidlnterest .................. 295 69
Paid Eugene Kelly & Co., interest
on Mayor's note............ 11,608 59 192,902 85
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II
II
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. -5
Incidentals
Paid for feeding prisoners at Barracks ..................... $ 70 98
Paid for carriages for assessors and
funerals .................. 4500
Paid for elections... ........... 645 00
Paid for postages and telegrams.. 504 85
Paid for sundries, costs in suits,
etc., etc.................... 8,237 07
Paid for charity................ 211 50
Paid Mrs. Grady, compensation for
injury to her husband...... 200 00
Paid G. T. Newbert, injury falling
from the bluff.............. 41 00
Paid for telephone to Dec. 31,1881 102 00 84,057 40
Public Schools, poll tax year 1880 2,359 00
Jail. ......................... 10,484 32
Laurel Grove Cemetery ......... 5,433 76
Liquidation ................... 3,809 62
Market........................ ' 4,66572
Opening Streets................ 500 00
Parks and Squares.............. 5,390 59
Police......................... 49,136 27
Police Uniforms.... . ......... 3,28225
Printing and Stationery ....... . 1,864 50
Public Buildings .............. 4,036 35
Quarantine ................... 3,922 63
Rents..... .................... 40000
Salaries ....................... 18,328 71
Scavenger Department.. ...... 11,458 27
Streets and Lanes...... ....... ' 36,50722
Water Works ................. 21,681 17
Water Works Improvements..... 500 00
Discount on taxes, 1880......... 4,997 11
Discount on taxes, 1881......... 29,459 21
Sinking Fund ................. 12,659 25
Balance on hand Dec. 31,1881... 35,017 63
$547,759 40
6 MATCH'S ANNUAL KEPOBT.
At the commencement of the year 1881, the floating
debt of the City was as follows :
Judgment on Mayor's Notes favor of
Eugene Kelly with accrued Interest. ........... ........... .$63,004 27
Accrued interest on matured and maturing bonds not compromised
and maturing coupons of old
bonds (estimated) ............ 25,000 00
Outstanding accounts unpaid....... 10,500 00$98,504 27
There has been paid during the year:
Interest to Eugene Kelly........... $11,608 59
In settlement of past due coupons... 9,852 32
Bills and accounts for the year 1880 10,500 00$31,960 91
The indebtedness of the city, exclusive of its funded
debt at this date, is as follows, to-wit:
Judgment on Mayor's note iavor of
Eugene Kelly, with accrued interest.. ...... .............. $54,895 08
Accrued interest on matured coupons and maturing coupons of
old bonds, not compromised
(estimated) ................. 10,000 00
Outstanding accounts for the year
1881, unpaid................ 10,000 00 $74.895 68
Against which there is cash in the
treasury.................. . 35,017 63
Taxes past due, considered good... 30,000 00
Unpaid taxes for 1881, including
fourth quarter tax due this day 100,000 00
Due from all other sources....... 25,000 00 190,017 63
The bonded debt has been reduced $14,100 during
the year. Of this amount $11,200 were purchased by
the Sinking Fund Commission, and $2,900 was received by the City Treasurer in payment of balance of
purchase money on gronnd rent lots.
There have been $5y,000 of old bonds exchanged for
the new bonds, during the same period, of which
MAYOR'S AHNUAL REPORT. 7
$56,500 were not stamped and $2,500 were stamped
with the compromise agreement
The bonded debt January 1, 1881,
amounted to.................. .$3,499,100
Purchased and cancelled during the
year............ .............. 14,100$3,485,000
There are outstanding at this date new
five per cent, bonds............. 3,356,800
Old bonds stamped with compromise
agreement.. .................. -18,600
Old bonds not compromised......... . 109,600 128,200
Total bonded debt January 1,1382... 3,485,000
The Sinking Fund Commissioners have performed
the duties prescribed by ordinance. The particulars
of their transactions are embraced in their official report, which is appended.
The tax on real estate, which has been two and onehalf per cent, for the four years last past, has been increased by ordinance for the year 1882, to three per
cent., and the discount for prompt payment reduced
to ten per cent. This increase has been determined
upon with a view of improving the water works.
There has been general and just complaint of the inadequate supply of water, and there appears to be a
well-founded belief that purer water can be obtained
at a point on the Savannah river, further removed from
the city. After a full consideration of these questions,
and, in view of the necessity for increased pumping
facilities. Council reached the conclusion that there is
an imperative necessity for the removal of the works
from their present location, and constructing new
works, which, it is believed, will meet the present requirements, and which will be adequate to furnish a
full supply of water in every part of the city for many
years to come. The estimated cost of the entire improvements is $175,000, of which sum it is proposed
to expend $80^000 the present year. Of this amount
.
8 MATQK'S ANNUAL BBPORT.
$20,000 was provided for in the budget for 1881, and
has been set apart for that purpose. It is estimated
that the balance will be realized from the increased
tax on real estate. A full description of the improvements contemplated is given under the head of water
works.
The crops of William Speers, Moses Perrill and
Dennis Beardon, on the lands east of the Bilbo Canal,
were alleged to have been injured by being overflowed
by the tide in the year 1878, and claims were made
upon the city for damages which were considered unjust and excessive by the city authorities. Efforts
were made for a settlement without success. Suits
were then brought against the city in the Superior
Court and judgment rendered in iavor of Wm. Speers
for $1,070.00, and in favor of Moses Perrell for
$1,128.20, which have been paid. The suit of Dennis
Keardon for $2,000 is still pending. A judgment in
the Superior Court has also been rendered against the
city for $6,067.60 in favor of William Cleary for damages to bis crops on the lands of the Lamar estate, in
August, 1871. A new trial was asked for and denied.
An appeal was taken to the Supreme Court of the
State, and the decision of the Court below sustained.
The claim in this case was also considered excessive.
It was in evidence that eight inches of rain water fell
in the twenty-four hours in which it is claimed the
damage occurred, and the city authorities believed
that the damages were caused thereby, and that the
subsequent overflow of the lands by the tide caused
no further injury. In the light of this decision it appears to be questionable if the city can successfully
resist any claim for damages to crops on those lands,
even if beyond the power of human agency to prevent.
A hurricane of unparalleled violence occured on the
27th of August last, doing great damage to property
in the city and vicinity. The Exchange and Market
buildings were seriously damaged, and all of the
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 9
buildings belonging to the city were more or less injured. The wharf at the quarantine station was swept
away and the buildings destroyed. The fire alarm
telegraph wires were broken in many places and
leveled to the ground, and a great number of shade
trees blown down. The fences and railings enclosing
the parks and squares and at Laurel Grove Cemetery
were partially blown down and crushed by falling
trees. The expense to the city resulting directly from
the storm amounts to $21,419 77, all of which has
been paid except the sum of $2,800, for contract work
at the Market and Quarantine Station which is not yet
completed.
Great credit ia due to the committees of Council
and to the officers and men in the various departments
of the City Government for their efforts to protect the
city property, and for their prompt and energetic action
in repairing the damages and clearing away the debris.
POLICE.
A high standard of efficiency has been maintained
in the Police Department during the past year, fully
justifying the confidence which has been reposed in
the force by the city authorities and the public. The
strength of the force remains as last reported, to-wit:
one Chief, two Lieutenants, four Sergeants and fifty
privates. They have performed all the duties required
of them promptly and intelligently. Their coolness,
courage and reliability on the occasion of the labor
troubles in September last, illustrated in an eminent
degree the results of careful training arid discipline,
reflecting great credit upon both officers and men. At
the incipiency of the riot Sergeant H H. Harvey, a
brave and faithful officer, fell mortally wounded while
attempting, single handed, to suppress a riotous mob,
sacrificing his life to his devotion to duty. In his
death the city lost a conscientious, intelligent and
gallant officer, whose record on the force is alike hon-
10 If A YOB'S ANNUAL EEPORT.
orable to his memory, to his comrades and the community which he served. The services of the military
organizations in that emergency merit the recognition
and appreciation of the City Government and the
) citizens generally. While but one company was
called upon for actual service, the entire military
force of the city manifested a commendable readiness
to respond to any call for their services. A sufficient number were sworn in as special policemen, and
were in readiness at their respective armories day and
night for several days, subject to the call of the civil
authorities, thus exerting a decided restraining influence upon the disorderly elementa
At the request of the Central Rail Road and Banking Company, and for the better protection of their vast
business interest at the Ocean Steamship Company's
wharves, an ordinance was adopted in Council October 12th, 1881, authorizing the organization of ati auxiliary police force, to consist of three -Sergeants and
eighteen privates, subject to the ordinances, rules and
regulations governing the regular force, to be paid,
uniformed, armed and equipped at the expense of the
Central Rail Road and Banking Company. This force
has. been on duty at the Ocean Steamship Company's
; wharves for a period of three mouths, and have done
I efficient service.
; Under the provision of an ordinance adopted
in Coucnil December 7th, 1881, the terms of office
' of the Chief and Lieutenants of Police have been
i extended to three years, the Sergeants are appointed
; by the Mayor on recommendation of the Chief,
j subject to confirmation by Council, to serve during
I ' good behavior, or during their capacity to perform the
j services required. The report of the Chief of Police
! gives detailed information in relation to the property
I in charge of the department, the number of arrests,
etc, etc.
; The cost of the department for the year amounts to
MATCH'S ANNUAL REPORT. 11
$49,136.27, which includes purchase of horses and expenses of every kind.
STREETS AND LANES.
This department of the City Government has received careful attention from the committee having it
in charge, and has been managed with energy and
economy. Many improvements have been required
to meet the demands of the increased business of the
city that the committee have been unable to make for
the want of suitable material, and the necessity of restricting their expenditures to a som within the ability
of the city to pay. The have found it impracticable
to keej) the unpaved streets in the business portion of
the city in good condition. It is believed that it will
be a measure of sound economy to extend a substantial stone pavement over them with the least possible
delay.
An ordinance was adopted in Council in June last,
providing for the opening and widening of Joachim
street from Lumber street to the Ogeechee canal, and
extending it thence westward to the intersection of an
unnamed street connecting direct with the wharves of
the Ocean Steamship Company. This extended street
has not been improved. It should have early attention. In view of the necessity for increased facilities
and further direct communication with the Ocean
Steamship Company's wharves and the extensive
warehouses now being erected by the Central Rail
Road Company, west of the canal, early measures
should be taken for opening Joachim. street from
Fahm street to Lumber street, and, looking to the future of that part of the city, it would, in my opinion,
be a wise policy to widen Joachim street to the same
width as Bay street from West Broad street to the
Ogeechee canal, thus making a wide, straight and unobstructed street from the eastern to the western extremities of the city.
12 MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
Increased facilities are also required for the business of the city with the Savannah, Florida & Western Railway Company's wharves. The street running
east from Randolph street to that point has never
been accepted by the city, consequently has not been
' worked nor properly attended to, and in wet weather
is almost impassable.
Two hundred thousand Greywacke stone-paving
blocks have been purchased the past year at a cost of
$36.25 per thousand delivered, and Wheaton street
has been paved with that material from Arnold street
to the entrance of the naval stores yard of the Savan-
. nah, Florida & Western Railway. Sixty thousand of
the stone are on hand and will be disposed of during
the ensuing year as Council may direct The cobble
stone pavement in Barnard street has been extended
from Congress street to Broughton street. Three
thousand running feet of stone crossings have been
laid in Whitaker and other streets, and the stone
pavements generally resurfaced and kept in good order.
As an experiment the International Pavement Company of New York were granted permission to lay
; down a small quantity of their patent Asphalt pave-
! ment immediately in front of the City Exchange, the
} conditions being that if it proved satisfactory for the
term of five years from the time it was laid, the city
- should pay for it at the rate of $2.10 per square yard,
and if otherwise, the city is not to be at any expense
for it. It has been laid for a period of seven months,
and thus far has stood well and appears to be a durable pavement.
A substantial bridge with permanent brick abutments has been built on Gwiunett street, crossing the Musgrove canal, and the bridges crossing
the Ogeechee canal -jn Railroad street and Canal street
have had thorough and extensive repairs. The
Augusta road, between the Ogeechee canal and the
Musgrove canal, has been improved by covering the
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 13
roadway with brickbats to the depth of twelve to
fifteen inches over its entire surface, and the streets
and lanes generally graded and kept in good condition. This department also has charge of cleaning
the streets and lanes, a service that requires constant
and careful attention and involves a large expenditure
of money. The prompt and energetic action of the
committee in cleaning the streets, lanes, parks and
squares of fallen trees and debris and repairing damages to fences, railings, etc., after the storm of the 27th
of August reflects the highest credit upon them. The
results of the storm entailed an additional expense of
$10,634.61 to the Street and Lane Department. The
total cost of the department, including parks and
squares, amounts to $41,897.81, which exceeds the
amount estimated in the budget for the year, $8,313.81.
FIRE DEPARTMENT.
The service in this department has been creditably
performed. The apparatus, equipment and property
of every kind has had careful attention and is in good
order. One thousand feet of improved rubber hose
have been purchased the past year. The reports of
the Chief Engineer and Secretary give detailed information in relation to the practical working of the Department, the number of fires and alarms during the
year. The total cost of the Department amounted to
$16,5ia75, of which $293.00 is chargeable to storm
expenses. The damages to the fire alarm telegraph
occasioned by the storm were repaired by the officers
and men of the Department, without expense to the
city for labor.
GAS.
The contract with the Savannah Gas Light Company for lighting the street lamps expired December
31, 1881. The proposal of Mr. N. F. Thompson for
lighting the lamps with Naptha gas for $19.5u per
14 MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
lamp for one year has been approved by Council, and
the conditions of a contract with him agreed upon, if
a satisfactory bond and security to the amount of
$50,000 to secure its fulfilment is executed. It is proposed to establish additional lamps in the Eastern,
Western and Southern parts of of the city. The expense of the street lamps for the year 1881 amounted
to $16,970.05, and of gas for the public buildings, including the Market and Police Barracks, to $1,105.75.
PUBLIC BUILDINGS.
The expenditure for Public Buildings amounts to
$4,036.35. Of this sum $3,765.19 is directly chargeable to damages caused by the storm. The portico to
the Exchange has been repaired, and the Mayor's office, Clerk of Council's office and the interior of the
Police Barracks painted and improved. The interior
arrangements of the Fireman's Hall have been
changed and made more convenient for the uses of the
Fire Department. Minor repairs have also been made
to all the buildings belonging to the city.
PUMPS.
Three new wells, with pumps complete, have been
built during the past year, making the' total number
of pumps maintained by the city one hundred and
fifty-two. Nineteen decayed pumps have been condemned and replaced with new ones, and the pumps
and platforms generally repaired and the wells cleaned
and cemented. The expense in this department
amounts to $2,699.89.
An ordinance adopted by Council at the last regular
meeting provides that all work "in the pump department shall be done by contract in the future, without
any salary to the contractor.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL BEPOBT. 15
JAIL.
This structure is a constant and continued expense.
It is old, dilapidated and insecure, and requires extensive repairs yearly to keep it in a tenantable condition. Besides, it is inadequate in its accommodations
and utterly unfit for the confinement of prisoners. The
interests of both the city and county would be subserved by the immediate construction of a new building. The Jailer has performed the duties of his office
faithfully and satisfactorily. The receipts for the year
amount to $16,264.93, the expenses to $10,484.32.
DOCKS AND WHARVES.
The receipts from this source have been carried to
account of rents. The expenses have amounted to
$347.10, of which $50.00 resultedsfrom the storm. The
steps of the Market dock require repairs. The other
public docks are in good condition.
DRY CULTURE.
The committee in charge of this department have
given careful attention to the duties imposed upon
them.. The Bilbo and Musgrove canals, and all the
banks and ditches under their supervision have been
regularly and thoroughly cleaned and kept in good
condition. Much additional labor and expense were
caused by the storm. All of the low lands were overflowed from the river, the dams seriously injured or
entirely carried away, and the ditches filled with earth
and debris. They have been restored to their former
condition and placed in good order at an expense of
$2,599.91 The Screven sewer has been extended two
hundred and fifty feet to the wharf front on the Savannah river, at a cost of $950. This department has also
been charged with $1,070.00, paid William Speers, and
$1,128.20, paid Moses Ferrill, on judgments obtained
against the city in the Superior Court, for alleged
damages to their crops by the tide in the year 1878.
16 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BBPOET.
A judgment against the city in favor of William
Cleary, for $6,067, for damages to his crops in the
year 1871 has also been obtained. An application
for a new trial was made and denied. An appeal was
taken to the Supreme Court of the State and the deeision of the lower Court sustained.
In the sale of a portion of the water works tract to
the Central Bail Road Company, a stipulation was
agreed to and embodied in the titles, whereby that
Company assumes the entire control and expense of
the trunk at the entrance of the Springfield sewer, and
the exclusive care of the trunks at the entrance of the
Musgrove Canal, and the responsibility of keeping the
banks in order on the property purchased.
The storm also did great damage to the banks
and ditches on Hutchinson's Island. On that portion of the Island under the direction and management of Mr. T. L. Kinsey, they have been
partially repaired and are in such order as to prevent the lands being overflowed by the tides.- On
the lands owned by the City and leased to Mr. C. F.
Stubbs, with an obligation on his part to keep the
banks, ditches, etc., etc., intact and in the same good
order in which he received them, a force is BOW employed in making the repairs, and it is expected they
will be placed in good condition with the least possible delay. The banks on the land owned by Mr.
Stubbs and Dr. J. J. Waring, are als9 to have early
attention.
The bank constructed by the city enclosing the
wharf lots immediately opposite the city, from Willink's Marine Railway to the dry dock, under an
agreement that it should be maintained and kept intact by the owners of the lots, was also broken, and
the owners of the lots on which the breaks occurred,
have refused to make the repairs as provided in the
contract After due notice to them, the work has
"been commenced and will be completed by the city,
HAYOR'S ANNUAL REPOKT. 1?
and legal measures instituted to compel the lot owners
to reimburse the city for the expense incurred.
As a sanitary measure the importance of enforcing
dry culture on all lands subject to the dry culture
contracts, cannot be over estimated in my opinion,
and every means in the power of the city should be
used to ensure their being kept dry and in good order.
MARKET.
The market building was seriously damaged by the
storm. The central portion of the north wall was
blown down and the roof partially carried away.
The repairs are now in progress. The total expense
for the year, including salaries, labor, gas, etc.,
amounts to $4,665.72, of which $1,000 resulted from
the storm. The receipts amount to $16,216.10. A
further outlay of $1,650 will be required to place the
building in good condition.
WATER WORKS.
The subject of the removal of the water works from
their present location, and the necessity of purchasing
new pumping machinery to replace the pumps that
have been in service a period of twenty-nine years,
has received the earnest attention of each succeeding
Council for the past four years. In the year 1880, the
sum of $20,000 was placed in the budget for the year
1881, for the purpose of purchasing a new pumping engine. Upon the accession of the present Council to office, the question of an adequate supply of water received their prompt consideration. After careful investigation, it was determined to purchase a new pumping
engine, of the capacity of five million gallons daily,
and to erect a stand pipe of sufficient height to ensure
the pressure necessary to distribute a full supply of
water in all parts of the city, and in view of the many
serious objections to the situation of the present
2
'J 18 It A TOll'S ANNUAL REPORT.
,.!
" works, and the importance of procuring the water at a
> point farther removed from the sewerage and the washings from the streets of the city and from the drainage
* of the Springfield Plantation, the Ogeechee canal and
4- Mnsgrove creek, it was decided to abandon the water
; basins now in as* and locate new works on the property recently purchased for that purpose about two
, miles above the city. The improvements determined
upon contemplate the locating of the engine now being
built at the point named, and laying a twenty-four
r^ inch iron main from thence to Franklin square, and
when these are completed and connected with the
': present water pipes, the removal of the engine built
in 1876 to the new works. A contract has been entered
', into with Mr. Henry Worthington, of New York, for
the new pumping engine to be delivered and placed
in running order on or before the 31st day of May
next, and with the Gloucester Iron Works, of Phila-
' delphia. for the iron piping, to be delivered weekly
; during the months of February, March and April.
The work of laying the mains and constructing the
necessary buildings will be commenced at an early
j day, and will be carried forward to completion with
the least possible delay. It is estimated that the cost
I . of the mains, the building, and the new pumping en-
: gine, will amount to $80,000, of which $20,000 is now
] available, having been set apart for that purpose duri ing the past year, and the additional sum required
* will be realized from the income of the city, as provided for in the tax levy for the year 1882. In view
of the great cost of the improvements, it was considered injudicious to levy a tax sufficient to defray the
expense of constructing the entire works in one year,
and it has been decided to defer the building of the
* stand pipe until the year 1883, the present intention
U is that it shall be contracted for when the budget for
* 1883 is made, and such further tax levied as may be
necessary to ensure its completion.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL BEPORT. 19
In my opinion, the importance of the improvements
justify the large outlay that will be incurred. An additional supply of water and additional pressure to
distribute it uniformly in all parts of the city is not
only necessary for the convenience and comfort of the
people, but is also of the utmost importance for the
protection of property from fire, and is absolutely indispensable for sanitary purposes. Five thousand
seven hundred and seventy-five feet of six-inch, and
two hundred and sixty-four feet of four-inch mains,
have been laid in various parts of the city the past
year, and such repairs as have been necessary to keep
the works in running order made. The report of the
Superintendent gives detailed information in relation
to the daily consumption of water and the general
management of the works. The cost of repairs resulting from the storm amounted to $316.36, and the total
expenses of every kind for the year to $22,181.17. Of
this amount 500 is on account of the new works. The
receipts amount to $36,069.98.
The office of Secretary and Treasurer of the Water
Works has been abolished. The water rates are now
payable at the City Treasurer's office.
SAVANNAH RIVER IMPROVEMENTS.
The General Government has continued its operations for the'improvement of the Savannah river, under
the direction of General Q. A. Gilmore, U.'S. A.
I am indebted to the courtesy of Captain Benj. D.
Greene, U. S. Engineer in immediate charge of the improvement, for a detailed statement of the work done
during the year, which is appended.
The work on the submerged dams has been delayed
by the failure of the contractors to fulfill their contracts. It is now being pursued energetically, and
there appears to be no reason to doubt that important results will be obtained. There being no ap-
1 20 MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. t
' propriation available for the payment of the amount
" awarded by the courts for the land condemned at Fig
Island for the widening of the river at that point, the
Engineer applied to the city authorities in December,
1880, for a loan of $1,000 for that purpose. TheCoun-
f cil approved of the application, and, by direction of
" the Finance Committee, the loan was made January
3d, 1881. The money has not yet been returned to the
' city.
The city's dredge and scows, with all rights pertain-
..: ing, have been sold for the sum of $11,000 cash. '.i
HEALTH AND CEMETERY. (- The preservation of the public health has received
i the careful attention of the municipal authorities.
I The Health and Cemetery Committee, the Board of
Sanitary Commissioners, and the Health Officer have
been unremitting in their efforts to inaugurate and
| maintain every measure calculated to improve the
Sanitary condition of the City.
. j The expenses of the Department for the year have
> been as follows:
{ Salary of Health Officer............. *916 63
j Salaries City Physicians............ 1,250 00
1 Hospital accommodations for indigent
sick........ ............ ...... 6,184 50
} Ice, etc., etc., furnished indigent sick ;f treated at their residences by City
Physicians........ ........... 1000
Coffins and Burial Expenses for Paupers. ....... .................. 519 00
Salary of Keeper of Small-Pox Hospital.. ....................... 487 50
Expenses of Removal and maintenance
of Small-Pox Patients and Families ........................... 194 13
Purchase of ambulance and harness for
Small-Pox Hospital............ 105 00 *9,666 76
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
Privy Vaults
Pnrchase of mulee, wagons and forage, $1,725 97
Brick, cement and other material ... 1,096 16
Hire of Teams .................... 1,807 30
Wages of Mechanics and Laborers..,. 5,804 13
Salary of Superintendent............ 975 00111,408 56
Disinfecting Corps
Expense of Disinfectants, Carbolic
Acid, Copperas, Lime, etc........ 2,234 96
Hire of Wagons and Men........... 1,825 00' 4,059 96
Quarantine
Transportation to the Station....... 282 76
Medicines, Provisions, Fuel, Lights,
etc., etc.,...................... 235 00
On account New Buildings, Pnrchase
of Furniture, Fixtures, Boats, etc.,
to replace those destroyed by the
Hurricane of August 28th, ...... 1,334 00
On account rebuilding Wharf........ 367 61 2,219 37
City Dispensary
Salary of Keeper .................. 975 00
Salary of Assistant................. 650 00
Extra assistance and wages of porter. 358 00
Purchase of medicines...... ........ 3,004 48
Light, fuel, repairs, etc............. 193 20 5,180 68
Laurel Grove Cemetery
Salary of Keeper .................. 1,083 29
Pay roll of laborers ................ 4,085 00
Repairing damages resulting from the
hurricane, removal of fallen trees,
debris, etc..................... 265 49 5,433 76
Total....................................137,969 09
RECEIPTS.
From Chatham county prescriptions
upon City Dispensary.. ....... 421 80
From Lanrel Grove Cemetery, including sale of lots................ 1,457 25
22 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BHPORT.
From Quarantine................. .$2,765 00
From collections for repairs to privy
vaults ........................ 1,479 41 I 6,123 46
Net-cost of Health Department..... 31,845 63
The mortuary statistics for the year 1881 are appended to this report. Attention is again directed to
the great disparity in the percentage ot mortality between the white and the colored races, the annual ratio
! for the whites being 23.69 per 1,000, and for the colH ored 44.59 per 1.000, based upon the last census.
T There cannot be any question that this disparity re-
| suits from a want of the proper observance of the laws
j of hygiene, the culpable negligence of the lower class
<! of colored persons as to proper sanitary measures and
their carelessness in ministering to and providing for
the necessities of their sick.
The same results have obtained in other Southern
cities since the altered relation of the two races, and
the subject commends itself to the most careful consideration of the health authorities. Tt is to be regretted that many cities, competitors in business and trade,
have instituted invidious distinction against Savannah
in consequence of the large death rate, when the total
mortality is taken into account But the slightest inquiry will point to the fact that it is due to the large
death rate among the colored population, and to that
cause alone, the death rate of the white population
comparing favorably with other cities, North or Sou.th.
Tine city authorities continue to provide medical attendance for the poor of all classes, by the employment of two physicians and maintaining a well-equipped Dispensary, where medicines are furnished free
of cost to the indigent sick on the prescriptions of
practicing physicians. Hospital accommodations are
also provided at the city's expense.
On the 21st day of May last, a case of small-pox
was discovered at the dwelling on William street, be-
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 23
tween West Broad and Fahm streets. A report of the
same was made to the Health Officer on the 22d day
of May. The Board of Sanitary Commissioners acted
promptly, and directed the removal of the case without delay to the small-pox hospital, together with the
entire family, consisting of nine persons, who had been
exposed te the disease.
They also directed that the house in which the disease made its appearance should be closed, disinfected
and fumigated, and such bedding and clothing as had
become infected promptly burnt. As an additional
measure for preventing the spread of the disease, vaccination of all persons living in the vicinity was at
once performed. All of these measures were efficiently
carried out under the supervision of the Health Officer,
and it is gratifying to report that no other case has occurred since that time.
QUARANTINE.
The buildings at the Quarantine Station were destroyed, or so badly damaged by the hurricane in
August last, as to be unsafe for further occupancy,
and useless. The Wharf structure, except the original piling, the water tank, boats, furniture, provisions,
disinfectants, etc., were entirely swept away by the
force of the wind and sea. The Spanish bark, Marietta, abandoned by her officers and crew at the
Quarantine Wharf, was dismasted, capsized and
wrecked near the Quarantine Station. The lives of the
Quarantine officer and assistants were in great jeopardy, and saved by their clinging to the timbers under the roof of the hospital building, and sustaining
themselves there until the storm abated.
The Wharf has been rebuilt in an improved manner, and a contract made for rebuilding the hospital
and dwelling for the Quarantine officer on a plan which
it is believed will be secure in future. The work is
i ; h
24 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BBPOET.
now in progress, and it is expected will be completed
early' in February next.
New boats, furniture, and fixtures generally, hav<
been purchased, and temporary quarters provided foi
the Quarantine officer, on Tybee Island, until the Sta
tioh is again ready for occupancy. The cost of re
building, the purchase of boats, furniture, etc., anc
of stores and property, to replace those destroyed bj
the storm, will amount to $3,576.76, of which sun
$2,000 have been expended. The quarantine of al
vessels from infected ports has been strictly main
tained and the regulations prescribed by the Sanitary
Commissioners rigidly enforced.
PRIVY VAULTS.
Five hundred and fifty five privy vaults have beer
cleaned and cemented, and four hundred and ninety
nine recleaned during the year, and sixty-seven thou
sand, seven hundred and eighty-eight cubic feet o
foecal matter removed to a distance of not less thai
three miles from the city. The system of performing
this work has the unqualified approval of the health
authorities, and is regarded as one of the most impor
tant sanitary measures ever instituted in this city.
LAUREL GROVE CEMETERY.
In common with the parks and squares this Cemetery sustained great damage from the storm. Man;
of the finest trees were blown down, and the shrub
bery and plants destroyed or seriously injured, in
volving an expense of $760.50. The report of the
Keeper, which is appended, furnishes full details ol
the number of interments, etc.
GENERAL REMARKS.
In addition to the weekly inspections by the polic
force, the premises of every citizen have been in
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 25
spected, and every vault and water closet disinfected
twice each month, from the first of April to the first of
November. There have been issued for this purpose
during the past year ninety-one thousand, three hun-.
dred pounds of copperas, twenty-five barrels of carbolic acid, and one hundred and twenty barrels of
lime.
The Sanitary Commissioners have also required the
disinfection and fumigation of all houses in which
cases of infectious or contagious diseases have occurred, such as diphtheria, scarlet fever, etc. 'A commendable vigilance has been constantly exercised, and
it is gratifying to report that beneficial results have
been attained.
Attention is directed to the fact that since the year
1877, not a single case of yellow fever has occurred in
the city, thus disproving the assertion so often made
that sporadic cases of this disease occur every year.
The earnest co-operation of the citizens for the preservation and maintenance of general good health is
again solicited, and they are urged to observe a more
scrupulous cleanliness of their premises, and thus facilitate the Scavenger in the performance of his duties.
The ordinances in reference to garbage, trash, etc., as
well as all others looking to the preservation of the
public health, will be rigidly enforced, but it is confidently hoped that all citizens will realize the importance of every measure looking to the sanitary welfare
of the city, and contribute their assistance accordingly. Very Respectfully,
JOHN F. WHEATON,
Mayor.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CITY TREASURER, 01
DR. NTATEMKNT OF CASH RECEIVKD AND PISHUHSKD PROM JAN. I TO DKO. 31, 1881. OR.
Cash in the Treasury January i, 1881 . $6,17070 Rcard of Health
Paid salary of officers City Dispensary . $1,983 oo
Paid salary of City Physicians. .... 1,25000
Paid for drugs, medicines, &c ..... 3,004 48
Paid for coal, &c., City Dispensary. . . 35 65
Paid for cards, labels, &c ....... 54 25
Paid for repairs City Dispensary, . . . 103 30
Paid salary Superintendent Odorless Excavating Machine to January i, 1882 . 975 oo
Paid for Mules. ........... 335 oo
Paid for forage. ........... 1,294 60
Paid for hire of teams. ........ 1,807 3
Paid for treatment of mules ...... 33 oo
Paid for time of hands Sanitary Disinfecting Corps and Odorless Excavating Machine ............ 7,347 61
Paid for lumber, bricVs, sand, &c . . . 1,090 86
Paid for shoeing, repairs to harness, &c. 63 37
Paid for lime, cement, disinfectants, &c. 2,220 96
Paid for board of pauper patients at hospital. ............... 6,184 5
K
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C4
3
Board of Health
Received of Clerk of Council for repairs
to sinks .............. $1,479 41
Received of County Treasurer for Medicines for County poor ........ 421 80 i, go I 21
City Court
Received of Clerk for fees .......
City Lots
Received from sale of Oglethorpe Engine house .............
Received from sale of part of the Water
Works tract ............
Received balance of purchase money on
Lot No. 55, Brown Ward ......
165 oo
1,525 oo
5,000 oo
800 80
Paid for coffins for paupers . .
Paid for ice for paupers. . . .
Paid for bottles for carbolic acid
Paid for sundries. ......
Paid for burying dead animals.
519 oo
IO OO
5 30
281 52
14 oo $28,612 70
City Clocks
Paid salary of Keeper from December i,
1880, to January i, 1882. ......
Paid for repairs to clocks .......
162 50
1,88 oo
City Court
Paid City Sheriff, fees. ........ 1,481
498 05
2,000 01
825 oo
Paid Clerk, fees ...........
Paid salary of Judge from December i,
1880, to December i, 1881. .....
Paid Solicitor-General, fees ......
Paid Savannah Gas Light Co. for lighting office ........ ....
. City Lamps
Paid Savannah Gas Light Co. for lighting
city lamps ............. 15,578
Paid Savannah Gas Light Co. for posts,
labor, repairs, &c. ......... 1,391 85
20
35 50
K
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W ")
O
9 30 4,813 61
16,970 05
Received balance of purchase money on
South half of Lot No. 3, Lloyd Ward. $ 620 oo
Received balance of purchase money on
Lot No. 53, Lloyd Ward ...... 800 80
Received balance of purchase money on
Lot No. 44, Stephens Ward ..... 1,461 60
Received from sale of Lot No. 8, Crawford Ward ............. 476 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 51, Crawford Ward ............. 501 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 3, Craw- "
ford Ward, East .......... 810 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 10, Charlton Ward . . . . ......... 620 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 18, Lloyd
Ward ............... 901 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 21, Lloyd
Ward ............ ... 500 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 54, Lloyd
Ward ............... 75 r oo
Received balance on Lot No. 59, Lloyd
Ward ............... 175 50
Received from sale of Lot No. 75, Lloyd
Ward ............... 695 oo
Received from sale of Lots Nos. 42 and
43, Stephens Ward ......... 1,602 oo
to
00BI
Received from sale of .Lot No. 45, Stephens Ward ............. 1,001 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 74, Stephens Ward ............ 1,001 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 12, Charlton Ward, second instalment..... 150 33
Received from sale of Lot No. 41, Forsyth Ward, second instalment .... 183 34
Received from sale of Lot No. 9, Crawford Ward, East, first instalment. . . 433 34
Received from sale of Lot No. 17, Crawford Ward, East, first instalment. . . 251 67
Received from sale of Lot No. 44, Forsyth Ward, first instalment ..... 233 67
Received from sale of Lot No. 45, Forsyth Ward, first instalment ..... 163 33
Received from sale of Lot No. 48, Forsyth Ward, first instalment ..... 233 33
Received from sale of Lot No. 62, Forsyth Ward, first instalment ..... 333 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 16, Lloyd
Ward, first instalment ....... 441 66
Received from sale of Lot No. 31, Lloyd
Ward, first instalment....... 235 oo
Received from sale of Lot No. 32, Lloyd
Ward, first instalment ....... 201 oo
*
o w5a. o5
.1'- . -I;
Received from sale of Lot No. 42, Lloyd
Ward, first instalment ....... $ 233 66
Received from sale of Lot No. 43, Lloyd
Ward, first instalment ....... 233 66
Received from sale of Lot No. 50, Lloyd
Ward, first instalment ....... 218 34
Received from sale of Lot No. 51, Lloyd
Ward, first instalment ....... 326 66
Received from sale of Lot No. 70, Lloyd
Ward, first instalment ....... 258 34
Received from sale of Lot No. 21, Stephens Ward, first instalment.. . . . 300 33
Received from sale of Lot No. 9, Troup
Ward, first instalment ....... 801 oo $24,493 36
to
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City Lots
Paid for ~&**n acres McLeod mill site .
City Pumps
Paid salary Contractor ........
Paid for pumps, catch basins, repairs, &c.
Dry Culture
Paid for forage ...... .....
Paid balance on contract, 1880. ....
Paid salary Trunk Keeper. ......
Paid for nails, lumber, &c. ......
Paid for building flat .........
Paid for oil, c. ...........
Paid for fencing ...........
420 84
2,279 05
126 39
985 oo
580 oo
427 48
no 60
4 oo
170 .00
$4,060 oo
2,699 89
3
2!
et
Dry Culture
Received for building causeway Hutchinson Island
Paid for judgment and cost of suits
200 oo i Paid for time of hands ......
Fees
Received from City Marshal ..... 80 oo
Received from City Pound ...... 632 25
Received from Clerk of Council .... 130 oo
Received from Harbor Master ..... 11,361 45
Docks and Wharves
Paid for repairs to public wharves . . .
Paid for building catch basin. . . . .
Paid for removing logs from river . . .
Paid for hire of tug. .........
Paid for repairs to steps foot of Drayton
street.. ..............
2,198 20
4,424 30 9,025 97
240 oo
45 o
23 oo
800 >
o
31 io 347 10 %
Fees
Paid salary of Harbor Master from Jan- 1
uary I to December 31, 1881. .... 1,500 oo >
12,203 7 Paid for impounding dogs. ...... 1200 1,51200 ^
g Fire Department ^
Paid pay roll from December i, 1880, to 59
December i, 1881. ......... 10,852 oo ^
Paid for forage . ............ 1.423 34
Paid for horses. ........... 600 oo
j. Paid for hire of horses ........ 231 oo
Paid for medical services for horses . . 89 34
Paid for shoeing horses ........ 79 50
Paid for harness and repairs . ..... 285 55
Paid for repairs. ........... 797 38 2
Fire Department
Received from sale of horse
Ground Rents
Received from City Lots .
$ 28 50
Paid Washington S. F, Engine appropriation ..............
Paid for wood, coal, Sic. .......
Paid for hose valves, &c. .......
Paid for meals for men ........
Paid for material and repairs to fire alarm.
Paid for oil, hardware, &c. ......
Paid appropriation annual parade . . .
Incidentals
$ 37 5
98 oo
1,025
O
6
34 25
304 05
455 88
200 oo $16,513 75
33,7s 1 ol Prid for feeding prisoners at Police Barracks ............... 7 98
Paid for carriages for Assessors and funerals ................ 45 oo
Paid for elections. .......... 645 oo
Paid for postage and telegrams. .... 504 85
Paid for sundries, cost in suits, &c. . . 8,237 07
Paid for charity. ........... 211 50
Paid Mrs, Grady, compensation for injury to her husband. ......... aoo oo 4,05740
Paid G. T. Newbert for injury, by falling
over bluff ............ 41 oo
Paid for Telephones to December 31,
1881. ............... 102 oo
Interest
Paid coupons, old .......... 9,852 32
*i
Interest
Received from Chris. Murphy ,
CO
Jail
Received from Chatham County ....
Received from Liberty County .....
'Received from Pierce County .....
Received from Jailer of Chatham County
for fees ............ . .
Laurel Givtv Cimctery
Received from Keeper, burial fees .
Received from Keeper, sale of lots.
Paid coupons, new . ..,'...... 171,14625
Paid Eugene Kelly on account. .... 11,608 59
61 32 | Paid Sundry parties. ......... 295 69 192,902 85
Jail
Paid salary Jailer and Deputy from December i, 1880, to December I, 1881 . 3,399 96
Paid wages of cook from December i, Ef
1880, to December i, 1881 ..... 180 00 ^
Paid wages of guard from December i,
1880, to December i, 188? ..... 2,520 oo to"
Paid salary of physician from December |>
i, 1880, to January I, 1882. ..... 325 oo *
Paid physician for extra compensation 98 oo cj
Paid for wood, coal, nails, bolts, &c . . 453 34 *
15,841 63 Paid for blankets. .......... 101 50 win 60 Paid for repairs ........... 403 75 <
131 oo Paid for bread, beef, &c ........ 2,928 67 g
Paid Savannah Gaslight Company for f*
180 70 16,264 93 | lights ............... 74 10 10,484 32
Laura! Grove Cemetery
Paid salary of keeper from December i,
1880, to January i, 1882. ...... 1,083 29
726 25 Paid time of hands .......... 4,085 oo
731 oo 1,457 25 Paid for repairs, material, &c ..... 265 47 5,433 76
Licenses
Received from Clerk of Council
Received from office collections ,
$ 1.985 50
20,182 60 $32,168 10
Market
Received from Clerk, fees. . ,
Received from Rent of Stores .
Received from Rent of Stalls ,
9.853 25
2,623 60
3,739 25- 16,216 10
Liquidation
Paid attorneys' fees .......... $3,000 oo
Paid for cash box and lettering. .... 8 75
Paid sundry parties. .....'.... 80087 $3,80962
Market
Paid salary of Clerk and Assistant from
December 1,1880, to January I, 1883 . 1,516 58
Paid extra clerical services. ...... 460 oo
Paid time of hands .......... 650 oo
Paid for brooms, repairs, &c. ..... 1,314 99
Paid for awning ........... 33 oo
Paid Savannah Gaslight Company for
lights ............... 691 15 4,665 73
IfOpening Street* and Lanes
Paid estate A. S. Hartridge for opening
Bolton street. ...........
Parks and Squares
Paid salary Keeper Forsyth Place from
December 1,1880, to December 1,1881.
Paid time of hands. .........
Paid for material, carpenter work, painting, &c ..............
Paid for plants ............
K1
O
500 oo
900 oo
3,749 43
639 67
101 50 5,390 59
K
W
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Police
Received from sale of horses .....
Police Uniforms
Received from Clerk of Council for fines
Paid pay roll from December i, 1880, to
December i, iS8i. ......... 43,867 50
Paid for two horses .......... 310 oo
Paid for difference in horse trade. ... 75 oo
Paid harness, saddles and repairs . . . 198 55
Paid for hire of horse ,.,...... 20 oo
Paid for forage . ........... 2,241 89
Paid for shoeing horses ........ 222 75
Paid for material, repairs, &c .'.... 779 70
Paid for food for prisoners. ...... 521 72
Paid for batons, belts, &c ....... 282 80
Paid for coat and hat......... 13 50
Paid for printing and stationery .... 50 41
Paid for wood, coal, &c ........ 95 10
Paid for blankets, &c ......... 53 oo
Paid Savannah Gaslight Co. for lights .' . 249 60
Paid for telephone .......... 5 oo
Paid for capturing prisoner ...... n oo
Paid for funeral, nursing, &c., Sergeant
413 oo Harvey. .............. .138 75 49,136 27
Police Uniforms
4,072 oo
p
aid for uniforms. .......... 3,282 25
*
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.
CB
t*
Printing and Stationery
Paid salary of City Printer from December i, 1880, to December 31, 1881 . . 894 30 COOP
Quarantine
Received from various vessels, fumigating, disinfecting, etc. ........ $2,745 oo
Received from sale of boat. ...... to oo $2.765 oo
Paid for advertising. .........
Paid for printing and stationery, city officers .................
Public Buildings
Paid for repairs, insurance, &c. . . . .
Paid for fuel, city offices, .......
Paid for clock, Mayor's office .....
Paid for draping Council Chamber. . .
Paid Savannah Gaslight Co. for lights .
Public Schools
Paid amount of appropriation .....
$ 159 99
810 ai $1,864 50
3,680 so
81 15
28 oo
8a oo
165 oo 4,036 35
Quarantine
Paid salary Health Officer from January
i to December I, 1881. .......
Paid salary Keeper Pest House from December i, 1880, to December 31, 1881.
Paid for clothing burnt at Pest House. .
Paid for ambulance ..........
Paid for expenses to station ......
Paid for hire of tugs ..........
Paid for repairs, medicines, supplies, &c.
Paid for boat's sails, &c . .......
Paid for rent of house on Tybee ....
Paid for time of hands ........
2,359
916 63
487 5
9 50
105 oo
107 76 '
175 oo
1,619 63
122 OO
12 OO
367 61 3,922 63
Rents
Received from Lot No. 8, Crawford
Ward ............... 24 oo
Received from Lot No. 13, Calhoun
Ward ............... 18 oo
Received from Lot No. 37, Lloyd Ward 18 oo
Received from Canal Lot No. g . . . . 50 oo
Received from City Dredge and Scows . 1,400 oo
Received from McLeod Mill Site .... 99 96
Received from Wharf and Store foot of
West Broad Street ......... 350 oo
Received from Wharf foot of Abercorn
Street............... 200 oo
Received from Wharf foot of Drayton
Street .............. 75 oo
Received from Wharf foot of Whitaker
Street ............... ico oo
Received from Warehouse, Franklin
Ward ............... 560 oo
Received from Rooms in Exchange Building .. .............. 1,270 oo
Received from Tenants in Tombs . . . 150 oo
Received from Lots on Springfield Plantation ...... ......... 634 06 4,949 02
-K
fI
Hents
Paid Dicterson & Paulsen, as allowed
by Council . '. ...........
Paid Germania Fire Company .....
100 oo
30000 400 oo W
Sav innah River Improvements
Received from sale of Dredge and Scows
| Salaries w
$11,000 oo Paid City Officers from December 1,1880,
| to January I, 1882 ......... $16,431 71
Paid City Assessors for 1881. ..... 950 oo
Paid for extra clerical services . .... 957 oo$18,328 71 c
Scavenger Department
Paid Contractor from January i to De- ^
comber i, 1881 ...........' 11,458 27 >
% Sinking Fund &
Paid Commission's ......... 12,659 35
Streets and Lanes 2
Paid time of hands .......... 18,544 47 2
Paid time of teamsters ........ 4,351 70 <
Paid for building retaining wall, Ran- W
dolph street ............ 395 05 3
Paid for building bridge, Musgrove creek 959 92 W
Paid for building sewer, east side of '
Wheaton street. .......... 337 50
Paid for trees and straightening same. . 260 18
Paid for hire of teams &c.. ...... 1,817 35
Paid for two mules .......... 330 oo
Paid for forage. ........... 1,798 34
Paid for repairing harness, shoeing, &c . 669 73
Paid for buckets, brooms, spades, &c. . 246 14
Streets ami Lanes
Received from Clerk of Council for sewer
permits .............. 584 oo
Taxes, 1874
.Received from Real Estate. ...... 103 50
Taxes, 1875
Received from Real Estate. ...... 1.290 32
Taxes, 1876
Received from Real Estate ...... 4i338 35
Taxes, 1877
Received from Real Estate. ...... 3,608 23
Taxes, 1878
Received from Real Estate ..... T 5.364 5*
Taxes, 1879
Received from Real Estate. ...... 8,101 59
Received from Specific ........ 225 oo 8,326 59
Taxes, 1880
'Received from Real Estate. . ..... 72,148 13
Received from Specific ........ 1,831 oo
Received from Shipping. ....... 8 75
Received from Stock in Trade . .... 3,5o8jj44
Paid for material, repairs, &c . .... 1,842 94
Paid for material for street crossings,
pavements, &c ........... ' 1,208 23
Paid for ballast, freight, wharfage, &c . 3,745 67 36,507 29

w
eo
Received from Personal. ....... $4,445 9
Received from Income and Commissions 2,580 07 $82,531 48
Taxes1881
Received from Real Estate. ...... 167,103 25
Received from Specific.. ....... 45,953 10
Received from Dog Badges.. ..... 36 oo
Received from Stock in Trade.., . . . 13,12892
Received from Personal. ....... 15,948 47'
Received from Income and Commissions 5,102 50 247,272 24
Taxes, 1880
Paid'discount for prompt payment, $4.997
ilk.
o
Taxes, 1881
Paid discount for prompt payment. . . $29,18321 Jj
Paid for badges. ........... 276 oo 29,459 21 MJ OW
Water Works <
ORDINARY'EXPENSES. >
Paid running expenses of pumps . . . 3,588 75 %
Paid for repairs to engines, mains, &c. . 2,987 17 3
Paid for connections ......... 1,223 81 e*
Paid for incidental expenses. ..... 318 51 W
Paid salaries of officers and employes . . 7,515 04 3
EXTRAORDINARY EXPENSES. #
Paid for extension of water mains . . . 4,667 94 ^
Paid for flushing, cleaning.&c., cesspools. 345 43
Paid for improvements of hydrants, enlarging nozzles, &c ......... 412 99
Paid for building fountain, West Broad
and St. Julian streets ........ 91 oo
Paid for repairing and building inlets to
Waterworks. ........... 525 53
Water Works.
Received from Secretary for Water Rents 36,069 98
$547,759 40
Paid for hire of carriage. . ......
Water Works Improvements
Paid J. D. Cook for superintending improvements, on account.......
Balance on hand January I, 1882.
5 oo ai,68i 17
500 oo
35,017 63
$547.759 40
JAMES E. COPE, City Tnasurer.
We, the undersigned. Committee on Finance, have examined the accounts and books of the City Treasurer from the ist day of >.
January to the 3ist day of December, 1881, and find the same correct, with proper vouchers produced, and find balance in the Treasury ' ^
of thirty-five thousand and seventeen dollars and sixty-three cents, $35,017.63. q
GEORGE C. FREEMAN, Chairman.
SAMUEL P. HAMILTON, 9
JOHN SCHWARZ, . K
CHARLES C. HARDWICK, g
WM. E. GUERARD. H
OPINIONS OF/TTORMEYS AND REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE,
RELATING TO THE REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1880,
OF THE SINKING FUND COMMISSION.
LETTER OP G. C. FREEMAN.
SAVANNAH, GA., February 23, 1881.
HON. W. D. HARDEN, Savannah :
DEAR SIRIn pursuance of their understanding of
the right, power and duty conferred and imposed
upon them by the Act of the Legislature, and the Ordinances of the City relating to the compromise of the
bonded debt of the City of Savannah, the City Council of 1879-80 issued, in settlement of interest on matured bonds, and of matured coupons, some of which
had been sued to judgments, new five per cent, bonds
to the amount of $42,200 in excess of the face value of
the principal of the old bonds exchanged.
The members of the Sinking Fund Commission hold
the view that such issue or exchange of bonds is contrary to the spirit and letter of the Ordinances under
which the compromise was undertaken, and have embodied in the annual report of their work to December 31, 1880, a declaration that such exchange or
issue "is not authorized by City Ordinance which
provides for issue of new bonds in exchange for old
bonds only and at their face value." They also allude to the $42.200 as "the over-issue or actual increase
of the face of the bonded debt."
As you were the City's legal advisor pending the
preparation and enactment of the Law and Ordinances
bearing upon the compromise of the bonded debt, and
are familiar with all the legal questions involved
MATOE'S ANNUAL HEPOBT. 43
therein, I beg that you will do me the favor to furnish
for the information of the present Council, your opinion as to the legality, as well as the moral right of the
City's action, in settling claims for interest on matured
bonds, and matured coupons by exchange of new
bonds therefor; and also your opinion as to the
powers and duty, under the law, of the Sinking Fund
Commission in respect to the control or direction of
any matters touching the disposal of the City bonds.
Very truly yours,
GEO. C. FREEMAN,
Chairman, Finance Committee of City Council.
OPINION OF HON. W. D. HARDEN.
\
SAVANNAH, GA., February 24, 1881.
GEO. C. FREEMAN, Esq.,
Chairman Finance Committee, of City Council:
MY DEAR SIRYour letter of the 2Hd inst., asking my
opinion upon the question of the supposed over-issue
of bonds by the city (to the extent of $42,200), raised
by the Sinking Fund Commission, in their annual report, reached me last night, upon the adjournment of
Court, too late for me to then give the matter any
consideration, and itis only this afternoon that I find
time to reply.
The position of the Sinking Fund Commission as I
learn from your letter, its report, and other sources,
appears to be based upon the following facts :
Tlie city authorities, acting under their construction
of the State law and City Ordinance with reference to
the new five per cent bonds and their issuance and
exchange, have issued $42,200 in settlement of
interest on matured bonds and of matured coupons,
none of which had been brought under the com pro-
44 MATCH'S ANNUAL REPORT.
\
mise.. jyid many of which had been sued to judgment,
and mandamus absolute for their payment obtained.
*The Sinking Fund Commission holds that such issue
or exchange of bonds is contrary to the spirit and letter of the ordinance of the city under which the compromise was affected, though admitting that ,it is in
accordance with the Slate law, contending that the
City, by its Ordinance, adopted only a portion of the
privilege permitted by the State law, and that th ordinance is .a part of the contract between the city
and its bondholders. This seems to me to raise
three questions:
1st. Are the bonds so issued valid and binding on
the city.
3d. Are they issued in violation of the spirit and
letter of the contract of compromise, and
3d. Has the Sinking Fund Commission any jurisdiction of the matter.
My time is so limited that I cannot enter into a full
discussion of the points involved, but I will endeavor,
as briefly as possible, to give my views and the more
obvious reasons for them.
1st The State law authorizing the "issue and exchange of new bonds for outstanding bonds and coupons," "provided always that the new bonds so issued
shall not exceed in amount the previously existing
total bonded debt, with interest thereon;" it is immaterial whether the city passed an Ordinance declaring its intention to take advantage of the Act, provided it did take advantage of it. The fact that the
city has issued and exchanged new bonds for outstanding bonds and coupons, under the authority of
this law, estops it from claiming that there was no
Ordinance authorizing such issue, or even that such
issue was contrary to any city ordinance. I think
therefore, that there can be no doubt that the city is
as fully and completely bound by and liable for those
$42,200 of bonds as for any others.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL BEPOET. * 46
2d. The Ordinance under which the new bonds were
issued and which is printed on the'm together with the
State law, recites the State law, and directs the city*
authorities to "exchange new bonds under ttie provisions of this Ordinance, and under the authority of
said Act, of the same face value, for any and all of
the outstanding matured and maturing bonds of said
city at the option of the holders thereof after such
bonds have been stamped as hereinafter provided."
Nothing is said as to those bonds which are not
stamped; that is, which are not brought under the
compromise, but something is said which indicates
what the authorities are to do with bonds and coupons
not included in, or refusing, the compromise, for it is
expressly provided that when $2,500,000 of the bonds
have been brought under the compromise, that amount
shall be bound thereby, and that amount shall be exchanged as provided for. The bonded debt was, as I
am informed, in round numbers say $3,500,000; so by
the terms of the contract, even in view of the construction held by the Sinking Fund Commission, the
city authorities were left free to make the best bargain
they could as to the $1,000,000 which might not agree
to the terms offered.
I can see no reason, therefore why, as to the nonaccepting bondholders, the city authorities could not
have availed themselves of the best terms that could
be obtained, paying in cash, or in bonds; and provided the amount so paid did not exceed the principal bonds, coupons, interest on matured bonds and
matured coupons, and costs of suit, if any, of such
non-compromised bonds. I do not see how those
bondholders who had compromised and bound themselves can complain, or how the contract with them is
violated in either letter or spirit. The contract allowed
the non-accepting bondholders to be paid in full, principal and interest, dollar for dollar; if the authorities
succeeded in settling for less, not only is the contract
46 MAYOR'S ANNUAL RBPORT.
not violated, but the compromising bondholders are
benefited to the extent of the amount saved by the
city.
This upon the' basis of construction held by the
Sinking Fund Commission. I am confident, however,
that could the matter be brought before any court for
adjudication, it would be held that the contract, taking the Ordinance and the Act recited thereon together,
permitted the authorities to do what they have done.
3d. The whole duty of the Sinking Fund Commission under the State law, is to manage the Sinking
Fund, and look to its proper use and application.
Under the Ordinance, apart from matters appertaining directly to the Sinking Fund, they have one
other duty, and one other duty only, to performto
certify on the bonds, before exchange, that all conditions precedent required by law, and by the contract
under which the bonds are authorized to be exchanged,
have been complied with.
It is upon this additional duty that the Sinking
Fund Commission is supposed to base its action.
It must be recognized that there is a difference between conditions precedent and actions subsequent:
The bonds cannot be exchanged until after the required certificate is given, and the bonds turned over
to the Treasurer. The exchange is not to be made by
the Sinking Fund Commissioners. They have to certify that all "conditions precedent," up to the time
when the bonds are ready to be exchanged, under the
law, have been complied with, that is that the bonds
have been properly signed and attested and registered
in the office of the City Treasurer, and that any other
requirement of law with reference to preparing them
for exchange has been complied with. The Commission then so certifies and turns the bonds over to the
proper officer for exchange. I find no authority for
them to overlook such officer to see if he disposes of
the bonds according to law. The Treasurer is the
MAYOR'S AM-NUAI REPORT. 47
officer who receives them ; if he issues them improperly,
he and his bondsmen are responsible to the city; but
I have failed to see what the Sinking Fund Commission has to do with this " action subsequent" If the
Treasurer should be robbed, and the bonds thus
placed in circulation; or if he, with or without the
authority of Council, should issue them improperly,
he, or those by whose authority he acted, might be
liable to the city; but it certainly is no part of the
Sinking Fund Commission's duty to enforce whatever
remedy may exist.
Hence I am compelled to conclude that in raising
any question as to the disposition of the bonds made
by Council after the conditions precedent to exchange
(not including exchange) have been certified to, and
the bonds passed out of the possession of the Sinking
Fund Commission, the Sinking Fund Commission has
gone beyond its jurisdiction.
Permit me to add one other view in confirmation of
this. If it had been intended that this matter should
have been within the jurisdiction of the Sinking Fund
Commission, it is more than probable that some power
to enforce their rights would have been given to them.
I know of none such. I know of no power in them
by which they could retire the bonds, or force the
city to do so, or compel the city to take any action
whatever in the premises. It has been suggested by
several of the Commissioners, in my presence, that
they might resign if their views were not adopted.
This, so far from being a remedy, would, even more
than their present position, have a disastrous effect
upon the value of the bonds and thus greatly injure
the very persons they are striving to protect the
bondholders and could do no possible good. And
the fact that these gentlemen are of the highest standing and intelligence, would only make the result more
seriously injurious. Very truly yours,
WM. D. HARDEN.
4g MAYOR'S ANNUAL BBPOBT.
OPINION OF HENRY C. CUNNINGHAM,
CORPORATION ATTORNEY.
SAVANNAH, March 21, 1881.
HON. JOHN F. WHEATON, Mayor, etc.:
DEAR SIRTour reference of the report of the Sinking Fund Commission to me, has my attention, and in
reference thereto, I would say that the duties of this
Commission are fnlly and plainly set forth in the Or
dinances passed by the City in reference to the compromise of the city debt, and I am of the opinion that
it is no part of the duty of this Commission to dictate
or suggest to the Mayor and Aldermen of the City
what disposition shall be made of the bonds, which
are authorized to be issued for exchange for any and
all of the outstanding matured and maturing bonds
of the city. If in the judgment of the Mayor and
Aldermen of the city, it is determined that the Ordinance of December 17, 1878, taken in connection with
the Act of the General Assembly, referred to in the
preamble of said Ordinance, authorizes the issue of
new bonds for past due coupons, I am of the opinion
that this judgment is conclusive of the matter, and
while the opinion of the gentlemen composing the
Sinking Fund Commission may be valuable, yet I
cannot see that it is entitled to any more value than is
the opinion of any other citizens of equal standing and
position in the community.
The ordinances of the city clearly define the powers
and duties of the Sinking Fund Commission, and they
are found to be as follows :
1. To certify on bonds issued by the City that all
conditions precedent required by the law and by the
contract under which the bonds are authorized to be
exchanged, have been complied with.
2. Power to enforce taxation for raising a sinking
fund in certain contingencies.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL EBPOET. 49
3. To fill vacancies in its body.
4. To purchase bonds of the city with sinking fund
that comes into their hands.
6. To make an annual report on the 31st of Dcem
ber of each year.
I think it will not be seriously contended that the
power to regulate, in any manner, the issue of bonds
by the Mayor and Aldermen is included in. any of the
powers conferred on said Commission by the Mayor
and Aldermen.
The power to create a Commission of this kind is
conferred on the city by Section 4 of the Act of the
General Assembly, approved December llth, 1878,
and the only authority given is to "create a commission for the management of (said) sinking fund, and
for its proper use and application." Can the right to
regulate the amount of bonds to be issued by the
Mayor and Aldermen of the city, be included under
such a grant of power ? If the Act of December llth,
1878, does not confer th power on the Mayor and Al
dermen, to grant to the Sinking Fund Committee, authority to regulate the issuing of bonds by the city,
from whence do they derive their powers ? All their
powers will be found in the ordinances of the city,
and the power to pass these ordinances are conferred
on Mayor and Aldermen by the Act of December llth,
1878.
The Mayor and Aldermen have the power to issue
bonds under powers conferred by the General Assem
bly, but I am of the opinion that they cannot delegate
any part of this power to any other body, and to give
authority to the Sinking Fund Commission to regulate
in any manner the issuance of bonds by the Mayor
and Aldermen would be practically to delegate to another the authority confened by law on the Mayor
and Aldermen alone.
50 . HATCH'S ANNUAL BEPOKT.
If it be contended that the duty of the Sinking Fund
Commission '''to certify that all conditions precedent
required by law and by the contract under which the
bonds are authorized to be exchanged, have been complied with," confers on this Commission power to regulate the issue of bonds, then I am of opinion that this
delegation of power to said Commission is unauthorized by the law giving the Mayor and Aldermen
power to establish such a Commission.
The ordinance of the city, of December 17,1878, authorizes the "issuefor exchange," and the "exchange
' |* of new bonds for any and all of the outstanding matured and maturing bonds of said city," and the point
as made by the Sinking Fund Commission is that this
authorized an issue of bonds for bonds only, and that
; jjj the ordinance does not authorize the issuance of bonds
1 to take up past due coupons. I am of the opinion that
the terms of the ordinance are broad enough to comprehend the issuing of bonds for past due coupons,
the term bond having been held to include coupons
incident thereto, aud when we examine the preamble,
we see that the ordinance was passed under the authority of the Act of December 11, 1878, which expressly provided for the issue and exchange of new
bonds for outstanding bonds and coupons. The construction put upon this ordinance by the Board that
passed it, and that has just gone out of office, was
that it clearly permitted the issue of bonds to retire
past due coupons, and the issue was made by their
authority, and I cannot think that any one would say
that bonds so issued by the city are not the legal obligations, issued in accordance with the powers vested
by law in the Mayor and Aldermen of the city, and
equally as binding on said corporation as any bond
issued to retire an old bond, in the sense that this
word is used by the Sinking Fund Commission.
It is a matter entirely within the discretion of the
Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Savannah,
MAYOK'S ANIMAL BBPOR. . 51

whether or not it vill cancel, or have cancelled, any
bonds that have been received and stamped in accord
ance with law, by the Sinking Fund Commission ; the
issuance of these bonds is entrusted by law to the
Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Savannah, and
the Sinking Fund Commission has no responsibility
resting on it as to what shall or shall not be issued or
used by the Mayor and Aldermen.
Very respectfully,
HENRY C. CUNNINGHAM,
Corporation Attorney.
OPINION OF GEORGE A. MERCER, ESQ.
SAVANNAH, April 11, 1881.
To the Members of the Sinking Fund. Commission :
GENTLEMENIn accordance with your request, and
with a joint resolution adopted on the 4th instant by
the Finance Committee and the Sinking Fund Commission, I have conferred with the Corporation Attorney,
and now present my own opinion upon the question
submitted to me-, viz: " The legal right of the city to
issue, under any circumstances, new five per cent,
bonds in settlement of claims for past due coupons of
old bonds."
I have carefully read the act of the Legislature and
the ordinances of the city bearing upon this question,
and closely examined the question submitted.
As the Corporation Attorney and myself may reach
different conclusions, I give my reasons for the opinions arrived at by me, in order that the gentlemen interested in a legal solution of the question may verifythe opinions by the reasons, and decide which is the
eater one to adopt.
52 MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
The act of the Legislature of Georgia, approved December llth, 1876, did confer the power upon municipal authorities to issue new bonds, with coupons attached, to be exchanged and to stand for and in the
place of outstanding bonds and coupons. See act in
Rrbarer's Digest, 1871 to 1879, p. 2fi2. The real queV
tion, therefore, is, did the city undertake to exercise
the full power conferred by said act 1
The act itself provides that when the authorities of
any city shall desire to avail themselves of its provis
ions, they may pass an ordinance or ordinances ; and
it further provides that such ordinance or ordinances
shall have the force and effect of contracts between
such city and those who may receive the new bonds.
Ordinarily a city can express its views and exert its
. action only through an ordinance, and it is very clear
that the city could avail itself of the power conferred
by this act by the passage of an ordinance alone.
It is therefore necessary to refer to the ordinances of
the city to ascertain the extent of its authority in carrying out said compromise.
The ordinance passed December 17th, 1878, after the
passage of the Legislative act, and under its authority,
contains the final expression of the views of the city,
and of the nature of the compromise offered. It is the
embodiment of the previous ordinances upon this subject Section 1 provides that the "Mayor and Aldermen shall issue for exchange, and exchange, new
bonds under the provisions of this ordinance." Rebarer1 s Digest, p. 36.
But prior ordinances of the city upon this subject .
only express the views embodied in this ordinance.
In a note to Rebarer's Digest to the ordinance of
March 6th, 1878, p. 34, it is stated that the ordinances
of December 26,1877, February 6,1878, March 6,1878,
and July 24, 1878, being either suspended by or embodied in this ordinance, are omitted/*
MAYOR'S* ANNUAL REPORT. 53
The ordinance of March 6, 1878, is, however, published in full, but the ordinance of July 24, 1878, is
omitted. This last ordinance, in section 11, expressly
repeals the ordinance of March 6, 1878, except so much
of it as is embodied in said repealing ordinance and
all other conflicting ordinances and parts of ordinances.
This ordinance of July 24, 1878, no wr-ere confers
authority upon the Mayor and Aldermen to issue or
exchange new five per cent, bonds in settlement of
claims for past due coupons of old bonds.
On the contrary, the compromise or proposition offered by the holders of old bonds and coupons, and
which the ordinance seeks to effect, is very clearly
stated: i
1st. To receive in exchange for the present bonds
new bonds for the same amounts, having thirty years
to run from February 1st, 1879, with quarterly coupons for interest at five per cent, per annum, etc. 2d.
To receive in full payment of all interest and coupons
(and fractional part thereof) to February 1st, 1879,
fifty-eight per cent, of their face value, etc. The proposition was to receive in full payment fifty-eight per
cent, of the face value of the old coupons. It certainly
was not meant or intended to oft'er the holders of old
coupons new bonds of the city for the full face value,
or any compromise face value, of such old coupons, or
to pay interest upon interest.
The previous ordinance of March 6th, 1878, provided
that the coupons of old bonds offered for compromise
should be stamped at a reduced and compromise face
value, and that all coupons so stamped should, when
due, be paid in currency, or received as currency in
payment of taxes and dues, at their compromise face
value. Rebarer's Digest, pp. 33, 34
The intention and policy of the city, as clearly indicated by said ordinances, was to pay, or to absorb in
payment of dues, the coupons of old bonds as they
54 MATCH'S ANNUAL EEPOBT.
matured. No power, or intimation of power, it seems
to me, is expressed, to fund such old coupons in new
bonds, and thus to pay a reduced rate of interest not
only upon the old bonds, at their face value, but also
upon the coupons. To my judgment, it is clear that
no authority is conferred to pay interest upon
interest. If this could be done in one instance it
could have been done in all instances, and the
city by undertaking to fund the entire old debt,
f- coupons as well as bonds, and to pay five per
jj?' per cent interest upon the whole, would have* carried
out a scheme very different from the one expressed in
its ordinances, and comprehended by the great majority of the bondholders. The entire scope and meaning of the compromise offered, was to recognize and
retain undiminished the amount of the old debt fixed
by the face value of the old bonds, and to pay five per
cent interest upon that; but to pay, or absorb the old
coupons at a compromised value, and not to keep them
outstanding in the shape of new bonds, or to pay interest upon them The holders of old coupons would
hardly have applied such coupons to taxes and dues
at a reduced value, had they supposed that the real
meaning of the compromise was that they should receive, at their option, new coupon bonds for such old
coupons, receivable for taxes and dues at their full
value.
The ordinance of December 17, 1878, states in its
caption, that it is an ordinance "to provide for the issue of new bonds with which to redeem those outstanding."
Section one provides that the Mayor and Aldermen
shall issue for exchange, and exchange, new bonds
under the provisions of this ordinance, and under the
authority of said Act, of the same face value, for any
and all of the outstanding matured and maturing
bonds of said City." Rebarer's Digest, pp. 34, 35.
This language does not include matured and maturing
MAYOR'S ANNUAL BEPORT. 55
coupons. The only authority granted (and the language is mandatory "shall issue")is to issue and exchange new bonds of the same face value.
No power is given to issue and exchange new bonds
of a reduced and compromised face value.
If, therefore, the Ordinance authorized the exchange
of new bonds for the face value of old coupons, this
amounted to paying said coupons in full; for the payment by the City of new bonds, representing the face
value of old coupons, would clearly be the payment
of such old coupons in full. Now it was the manifest
intent of the Ordinance that these old coupons should
not be paid in full, but only at a reduced value.
Again : section five of said Ordinance provides that
said compromise should not be binding until bondholders, (not coupon holders,) representing two millions, five hundred thousand dollars, in face value of
the outstanding bonds, (not coupons,) of said City,
should have accepted said offer of compromise.
I have been informed that in estimating the above
amount, the face value of old bonds alone, and not
the value of old coupons, was considered ; and I think
this the clear intent of the Ordinance. In section
eight of said Ordinance, the distinction is clearly
drawn between the stamped coupons of old bonds,
which are to be paid, or received for dues, at their
compromise face value, and the old bonds which are
to be received at their face value.
- Section six of said Ordinance uses language somewhat ambiguous : "upon each bond, and the coupons
thereto attached, or appertaining, presented by such
bondholders as accept this compromise, unless they
be redeemed, by said new bonds, shall be stamped."
But this can refer only to the redemption, provided
by said Ordinance. The language is : "presented by
such bondholders as accept this compromise," that is
the compromise expressed in said Ordinance, and
56 HATCH'S ANNUAL BEPORT.
which confers no authority to exchange new bonds for
old coupons. The caption-describes the Ordinance as
one intended to provide for the issue of new bonds
with which to redeem those outstanding. The scaling
of the old coupons as provided, and the giving of new
bonds for the face value of the old bonds, bearing interest at five per cent, from February 1, 1879, was the
only method of redeeming old bonds and coupons inii dicated by said Ordinance.
My opinion is asked only as to the legal right of
the Mayor and Aldermen in the premises. I, of
course, express no opinion as to the wisdom or policy
of their course under the circumstances in which they
were placed.
After careful consideration, I can discover no au-
[3 thority anywhere in said Ordinance, or Ordinances,.
[ to give new bonds in exchange for the coupons of old
|f, bonds, and I therefore feel constrained to answer the
question submitted to me in the negative.
Very respectfully yours,
GEORGE A. MERCER.
OPINION OF HENRY C. CUNNINGHAM.
SAVANNAH, June 7, 1881.
HON. JOHN F. WHEATON,
Mayor, etc.
BEAR SIRIn considering the resolution asking
whether the city has any legal right to issue, under
any circumstances, new five per cent, bonds in settlement of claims for past due coupons of old bonds, I
have but little to add to the former report made by
me on this subject I am of the opinion that the city
has a legal right to issue new five per cent, bonds in
settlement of claims for past due coupons.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 57
The power to do this was, it seems to me, conferred
upon the city by the Act of the General Assembly,
approved December 14, 1878, entitled "An Act to
authorize the municipal authorities of towns and cities
to compromise their bonded debt; to provide for the
issue and exchange of new bonds for outstanding
bonds and coupons; to provide for the establishment
of a sinking fund- for the redemption of such new
bonds and coupons, and for other purposes."
The second section of this Act provides, "That
where there are outstanding bonds and coupons of any
incorporated town or city of this State, as aforesaid,
whether the said outstanding bonds and coupons are
due or to become due, it shall be lawful for the municipal authorities of such town or city to issue new
bonds, with coupons attached, to be exchanged and
to stand for and in the place of such outstanding
bonds and coupons; provided always, that the new
bonds so issued shall not exceed in amount the previously existing total bonded debt, with interest thereon, of such town or city."
This Act clearly authorized the authorities of towns
and cities to issue new bonds for outstanding bonds
and coupons, and to remove all doubts as to the
authority and the scope of it, goes on to say: "whether
the said outstanding bonds and coupons are due or to
become due." If the intention ot the Act was to limit
the issue to bonds due, it could not have used the language here quoted. The authority here granted seems
to be ample, and-the only limit to the exercise of this
power is that the amount of new bonds issued "shall
not exceed in amount the previously existing total
bonded debt, with interest thereon, of each town or
city." If the Legislature had intended to confine this
power to issuing bonds for past due bonds alone, why
should it have used the expression, "total bonded
debt, with interest thereon ?" "Total bonded debt"
must mean more than bonds outstanding. If it does
58 HAYOB'S ANNUAL KEPOET.
mean more, what is its meaning ? Clearly it mnst
comprehend coupons past due, which must be conceded, to be a part of the bonded debt of towns and
cities. I think it would be difficult to suggest more
appropriate words to convey the power to cities of this
State to compromise their bonded debts and to issue
bonds for past due coupons, and it seems clear to my
mind that the Legislature did contemplate that the
authorities of municipal corporations would have to
pay interest on interest in carrying out their compromises, for it says in the above mentioned Act limiting
the amount of new bonds to be issued, that "the
amount so issued shall not exceed in amount the previously existing total bonded debt, with interest thereon of such town or city."
It cannot be seriously contended that when the
Legislature uses the words "total bonded debt" it
intended to include coupons that were due. If these
coupons, past due, are included in the "total bonded
debt" of the city or town, then it seems to me to be
conclusive of the question as to the legal power of the
city to issue bonds for past due coupons
Can any financial scheme that the authorities of a
city or town choose to inaugurate to settle their bonded
debt abridge this power to issue bonds ? I think it is
clear that this power can not be added to or taken
from by any Act or Ordinance of the city or town.
And, while it may be true that municipal corporations
express their views through their own ordinances, yet
it is by no means true that they only act in this way.
I think it is evident that municipal corporations do
contract in other ways, and I submit that in an investigation of the legality of the issue of these bonds, if
it was shown that the city issued the bonds for the
compromise of its bonded debt under the authority f
this Act, that the city would not be heard if it attempted to avoid its liability by the plea that no Ordinance had been passed authorizing the issue. If legis-
MAYOR'S ANNUAL EEPORT. 59
lative authority is granted, I do not think that the city
could avoid its liability by not passing an Ordinance.
In the case under discussion, I am of opinion, that
the city would be estopped from denying its own con
struction of its ordinances when it is remembered that
the city, in carrying out its Ordinances on this subject,
has construed them as authorizing the issue of new
five per cent, bonds for past due coupons. If the city
would be thus estopped and it is conceded that the
authority to issue new five per cent, bonds for past
due coupons was conferred by the Act of December
11, 1878, on cities and towns of this State, and that all
that was wanting was an Ordinance directly authorizing such an issue, I can not understand how any practical results can be attained by this discussion. If the
city had legislative authority to do what it has done,
then I think it would be concluded by the Acts of its
authorities.
But it is contended that under the third section of
the Act of December 11,1878, it is necessary for municipal authorities, in availing themselves of this Act,
to pass an Ordinance and to act under this Ordinance.
This may be true, but I think it is clear that the Act
did not intend to confine the authority to the passage
of one Ordinance and to the making of one contract
by the city.
In the first section of this Act it is provided "that
this Act shall not be construed as to prejudice the
rights of such creditors as may refuse to assent to such
compromise," and the third section provides for the
passage of "Ordinance or Ordinances to provide for
the issuance and exchange of new bonds to stand in
the place of outstanding bonds and coupons," and the
second section of this Act says that where there are
outstanding bonds and coupons of any incorporated
town or city of this State, as aforesaid, whether the
said outstanding bonds and coupons are due or to become due, "it shall be lawful," etc.
60 * MAYOB'B ANNCAL BEPOBT.
. t, Now, it is clear that the Legislature intended municipal corporations to provide for the retirement of their
then existing bonded debts, that is, bonds and coupons
whether due or not due, and the only limitation on
this power was that the new bonds issued should not
exceed in amount the previously existing " total
bonded debt, with interest thereon, of such town or
city." And I think it is quite as clear that the Legislature intended municipal corporations to make conj| tracts with their creditors for this purpose, and the
j,ij Act never contemplated confining them to the passage
of one Ordinance or the making of one contract. The
Ordinance passed under this Act no doubt made a contract with certain bondholders of the city, and the
contract was to pay five per cent, bonds for old seven
> per cent bonds, but I can not understand how the existence of this contract can preclude the city from
making other contracts in reference to outstanding
bonds; there is nothing in the Ordinance to prevent
the city from making other contracts with its other
bondholders and creditors, and the Act which is under
consideration seems to have contemplated the making
of more than one contract to compromise bonded
debts of the towns and cities.
If, then, there be any doubt in reference to the contract which the city has made in compromising the
"bonded debt" of the city I can see no impropriety
in the city passing an Ordinance bringing past due
coupons specifically within the provisions of the Ordinance of December 17, 1878, and thus settling the
question.
Very respectfully,
HENRY C. CUNNINGHAM,
Corporation Attorney.
MAYOB'S ANNUAL BEPOBT. 61
REPORT OP FINANCE COMMITTEE.
The Sinking Fund Commission, having alluded in
its report for the year 1880, to what in their opinion
was thought to be an unauthorized issue by our predecessorsthat is, the Council of 187980, of $42,200
of new five per cent, bonds in settlement of claims
against the city on account of matured coupons of old
bonds, the Finance Committee of the present Council
deem it their duty to say that in making such settlements of those claims, the Finance Committee, under
whose administration they were made, had a perfect
right, under the Act and Ordinances bearing upon the
compromise of the city's bonded debt, to direct the
issue of those bonds for the purposes mentioned. In
the same report of the Sinking Fund Commission, the
Mayor was asked to return to them for cancellation
bonds of the principal face value of $60,000 that had
been certified by the members of the Commission, and
were then in the custody of the Treasurer, available
for exchange for old bonds.
We fail to find any warrant of law for, or any reason why the municipal authorities shall be expected
to delegate to the Sinking Fund Commission the disposition of these bonds. Neither do we find in the
laws creating the Sinking Fund Commission anything
intimating or suggesting their right to claim jurisdiction of bonds passed from their control to that of the
City Treasurer.
In support of our position we submit herewith the
opinion of his Honor, Judge W. D. Harden, who, as
Corporation Attorney, prepared the Act and the Ordinances fixing the conditions of the compromise, and
creating the Sinking Fund Commission, and the opinion of his successor, H. C. Cunningham, Esq., Corporation Attorney.
62 MATCH'S ANNUAL BEFOBT.
In April, 1881, at a conference of the Sinking Fund
Commission and the Finance Committee, the question
of the City's legal right, under any circumstances, to
issue new bonds for past due coupons, was referred
for joint examination and report to the present Corporation Attorney, and an Attorney to be chosen by
the President of the Sinking Fund Commission. The
gentlemen referred to, H C. Cunningham and George
A. Mercer, Esq., made no joint report, though each
of them prepared a written opinion on the subject,
both of which are hereto appended.
GEO. C. FREEMAN,
SAMUEL P. HAMILTON,
JOHN SCHWA RZ,
CHARLES C. HARDWICK,
W. E. GUERARD.
REPORT OF SINKING FUND COMMISSIONERS,
FOR 1881.
SAVANNAH, G.V., January 10, 1882.
HON. JOHN P. WHEATON, Mayor :
DEAR SIRThe Sinking Fond Commissioners beg
leave to make the following report of matters connected
with their department, or coming under their jurisdiction, for year ending 31st December, 1881.
With the funds at our disposal, $10,000.00, less
$26.35 over-draft on Treasurer for year ending December 31, 1880, say $9,973.65 net, we have purchased
new bonds of the face value of $11,200.00, and have
carefully cancelled the same with all matured attached
coupons, and handed said bonds, etc., to the City
Treasurer for such final destruction as Council may
direct The details of our purchases are as follows :
Feb'y 2, .1881. .$3,800 Bonds at 88 per ct. say $2,464 00
May4, ..1881.. 2,800 " 86j$ " say 2,43425
Sept. 17, .1881.. 3,000 " 87J " say 2,62500
Nov. 2, ..1881.. 2,600 " "86 " say 2,23600
Total 1881.... $11,200 Bonds costing. .........$ 9,759 25
Purch'd prev'ly 26,400* Bonds,costing.......... 20,026 35
Total purch'd.. $37,600 Bonds costing......... .$29,785 60
Leaving $214.40 cash in hands of Treasurer, subject
to our order, to be added to appropriation for purchase of bonds for the present year.
* In our report for the year ending 3151 December, 1880, we entered
$3.ioo bonds purchased August 6th, 1880; should have been $3,000.
This makes the total purchased $26,400, instead of $26,500, and the outstanding bonds $3,311,900, instead of $3,311,800. as stated in that report.
The amounts expended in purchase of bonds are correctly given in said
report.
64 MATCH'S ANNtJAt
In addition to these new bonds cancelled, the City
Treasurer has taken in payment of balance on ground
rent lots, bonds amounting to $2,900.00, the cancellation of which we have verified, and details duly placed
on our records.
The total amount of new bonds cancelled up to date
is $43,600.00, viz: $37,600.00 from purchases, and
$6,000.00 from receipts for balances on ground rent
lots.
We have verified the cancellation of $59,000 old
bonds, taken during the year in exchange for a like
amount of the new issue, which leaves the amount of
new bonds outstanding on 31st December, 1881, $3,-
356,800 against $3,311,900 outstanding on 31st December, 1880.
There are still in the hands of the Treasurer $58,600
new bonds, on which we have signed certificates, available for exchange.
We would again call the attention of your Honor to
the matter of the unauthorized issue of $42,300 new
bonds, to which we referred in our last annual report.
Nothing appears to have been done in connection with
this matter since we had a conference with the Finance
Committee on the 4th of April last. The result of that
conference was, as your Honor is aware, that the matter was referred, by joint consent, to the Corporation
Attorney and an attorney selected by us, with a view
to getting their joint, or separate opinions on the legal
points involved. The attorney selected by us handed
in his written opinion on the llth of April, and a copy
of the same was duly forwarded you, with a request
for early attention, on the 22nd of the same month.
Your attention was again called to the matter by letter on the 7th of June, and the only official notice we
have had since the conference in April, is your letter
of the 8th of June, in which you say, in substance,
that the Corporation Attorney's opinion had not been
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 65
received, but expected to be ready the following week,
and that we should have early information of any action taken, etc.
We call attention to this matter entirely from a
sense ot duty to the public, who naturally look to us
to give notice of anything connected with the new
bonds that may seem to conflict with the ordinances,
etc., authorizing their issue, etc.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Very respectfully,
JOHN FLANNERY,
S. GUCKENHEIMER,
JOSEPH D. WEED,
C. C. CASEY,
D. R. THOMAS,
linking fund. Commissioners.
REPORT OF CLERK OF COUNCIL
OFFICE CLERK OF COUNCIL,
SAVANNAH, G-A., January 1, 1882.
HON. JOHN F. WHEATON, Mayor,
Savannah, Go.:
SIRI have the honor to submit the following report of the transactions of this office from January 1,
to December 31, 1881:
Receipts
Badges (dog) . ................................ ^ 36 00
Board of Health (repairs to sinks) ............... 1,479 41
Pees ......................................... 130 00
Fines ....................................... 4,072 00
Licenses...................................... 1,985 50
Sewer Permits ............ ................... 584 00
$8,286 91
The above amount returned as fines was carried to
the Police uniform account.
The weekly reports of the inspecting officers (Board
of Health) have been carefully examined and nuisances
reported therein promptly abated. The complaints
entered by citizens on complaint book have also received prompt attention.
The reports of the Superintendent of the Disinfecting
Corps, showing number of houses disinfected, amount
of disinfectants used, etc., were carefully noted and
tiled.
The records of the city are written up to date, and
systematically arranged.
Very respectfully,
Tour obedient servant,
FRANK E. RBBABER,
Clerk of Council.
REPORT OF CHIEF OF POLICE.
OFFICE CHIEF OF POLICE,
SAVANNAH, GA., January 1, 1882.
HON. JOHN F. WHKATON, Mayor,
Savannah, Oa.:
DEAK SIR I have the honor very respectfully to
submit herewith my annual report of the Police Department, for the year ending December 3], 1881.
The aggregate strength of the department 13 fiftyseven, as f9llows:
Chief ...................................... ....... 1
Lieutenants ................'............. ............ 2
Sergeants............................................ 4
Privates............. ............................... 50
57
During the year 2,229 arrests have been made, being
480 more than the year previous. Of this number
878 were white and 1,351 colored, and the following
are the crimes and misdemeanors for which the arrests
were made:
68 MAYOR'S AKNUAL BBPORT.
OFFENSK.
Assault with Intent to Kill ...........
Fighting. ....................
Lost Children .................
Safe Keeping. .................
Total. ..................
S.
i
'(
4
388
38
59
2
5
13
4
6
707O
20
1 06
878
Colored,
2
84
"r
2
2
IS
3"
2
I67
6
2
. 17
112
2
14
184
62
I84
1,351
15
I
3
ill
25
i
2
IS
19
423
2
514
6
205
65
4
22
125
4
3
263
82
290
2,229
Number of animals impounded during the year....... 415
Number of stores and dwellings found open........... 57
Number Lodgerswhite, 347; colored, 72; total...... 419
Number of fires.......................... ......... 26
Number of false alarms ............................. 1
During the past year twenty-one privates were detailed as sanitary inspectors, who, in most instances,
were zealous and strict in the performance of their
duties, which resulted in the city being kept unusually
clean and healthy.
In September last, the usual good order and quiet
maintained in this city was for a time disturbed by
the labor troubles and strikes. They commenced on
the 19th of September, on the afternoon of which
Sergeant Habersham H. Harvey, while attempting to
disperse a riotous and disorderly crowd of strikers,
VATOB'S ANKTJAL KRPOKT. 09
was shot from behind by some one unknown, from the
effects of which wound, after much pain aad suffering,
he died on the 19th of October. Sergeant Harvey was
a faithful, zealous and most gallant officer, and his
loss will be severely felt by the department. Up to
this date his murderer has not been discovered, notwithstanding the most expert detectives in the city
were promptly employed.
These labor troubles lasted some five days, during
which time the members of this department were constantly under arms, and were subjected to unusual
fatigue and exposnra They performed their duties
cheerfully and most satisfactorily, and proved themselves equal to the emergency, which I feel no little
pride in saying has always been the case when called
upon since I hare had the honor to command them.
During the troubles referred to, the Georgia Hussars,
who had been sworn in as a special police force, rendered me most valuable assistance, for which I am
deeply indebted. To Captain Henry C. Cnnningham,
of the Savannah Volunteer Guards, I am also under
many obligations for the loan of breech-loading rifles
and ammunition for the same.
The members of this department are very much in
need of new breech-loading revolvers and rifles, and I
most respectfully beg and urge that they be furnished
without any further delay. I also urge the organization of a ''Reserve Police Force" in the manner frequently suggested by me to Your Honor.
At the request of Colonel Wm. M. Wadley, President, I organized on the 26th of last September a
police force of three sergeants and eighteen privates
for the Central Railroad and Banking Companj^ of
Georgia, at whose expense this force has been maiuI tained, uniformed and thoroughly armed and equipped
I in the most approved manner, all of which was after-
ward provided for by an Ordinance passed in Council.
This force is well drilled and disciplined and doing
L ___
70 MA-JOE'S ANNUAL REPORT.
very efficient service at the present time on the wharves
of the Ocean Steamship Company, who have vast and
most valuable interests there at stake.
They are quartered at the Police Barracks and perform, under my direction and command, the same
routine of duty performed by the members of the
regular police force.
The organization of this force is mutually beneficial
to the city and to the Central Railroad and Banking
Company of Georgia, and will, I hope, become permanent.
CASUALTIES AND CHANGES.
Resigned. Privates G. White, January 17, 1881;
F. Leech, April 11, 1881; J. A. Patterson, April 30,
1881; F J. Pridgeon, August 6, 1881; W. M. Taylor,
August 16, 1881; M. Hennessy, August 16. 1881; H.
H. Frierson, September 1, 1881; J. Donovan, September 28. 1881; J. G. Bennett, November 10, 1881; John
Power. December 19, 1881.
Dismissed.Privates S. D. Horton, February 14,
1881; F. W. Langbell; February 16, 1881; J. Buckley, April 7, 1881; M. McCann, April 7, 1881; G. H.
Mulligan, April 7,1881; Thomas White, April 7,1881.
Died from wound received while in the discharge
of 7iis duty, September 19, 1881.Sergeant H. H.
Harvey, October 19, 1881.
Appointed.Privates W. M. Taylor, January 10,
1881; J. M. Mock, January 19, 1881; Thomas McGnire, Febiuary 15, 1881; F. W. Langbell, February
26, 1881; F. J. Pridgeon, April 7, 1881; E S. Muse,
April 7, 1881; John Donovan, April 7, 1881; W. Fl
Nungezer, April 9, 1881: H. H. Frierson, April 12,
1881; John Harrington, May 2, 1881; J. S. Higgips,
Auirust 9. 1881; H. L. Fahenback, August 17, 1881;
E. F. Davis, August 18. 1881; B. McDonald, September 1, 1881; John Grogan, Septem ber 28, 1881; H. W.
Baughn, September 29, 1881; J. H. Brantley, October
I MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 71
6, 1881; G. W. Hall, October 21, 1881; A. W. Corker,
November 1U, 1881; B. E Davis, December 20, 1881.
Promoted.Privates Henry Lingg, promoted to
Sergeant November 9, 1881; E. S. Muse, promoted to
Sergent Central Railroad Police September 26, 1881;
F. W. Langbell, promoted to Sergeant Central Railroad Police October 5, 1881.
RECAPITULATION.
Appointed........................................:.. 20
Resigned ............................................10
Dismissed ......................... ................. 6
Promoted ........................................... 3
Died from wounds.................................... 1
NUMBER OF TOURS OF DUTY LOST DURING THE YEAR BY THE MEMBERS
OP THE FORCE.
NAMES.
i Evans . . .
2 Morgan. . . .
3 Handlon. . . .
4 Dufour ....
5 Neve. . . .
6 Maher ....
7 Crowley . . .
8 Hall, E. B . .
9 Heidt. ....
10 Jones, T . . .
ii Winkers . . .
12 Anglin ....
13 Jones, Alien .
14 Prindible. . .
15 Hazel ....
16 Smith. ....
17 Kelly. ....
18 Nungezer. . .
ss

Z 3
O
138
122
78
76
73
72
71
68
65
60
58
56
55
53
47
46
46
46
NAMES.
19 Jantzen.
20 Russell.
21 Jones, N.
22 McQuade
23 Malone.
24 Floyd .
25 Keane. .
26 Bender.
27 Clancy .
28 Counihan
30 Deignan
31 Mock .
32 Keirnan
33 McCabc
34 Brantley
35 Reilly .
36 McDonali
J
i
v of No. lost. tours
45
35
32
32
3i
30
*4
21
21
21
21
*9
17
16
15
IS
14
14
NAMES.
38 Fahenback. . . .
39 Hall. ......
40 Baughn. .
41 Fleming .
42 Corker. .
43 Harrington
44 Higgins .
45 O'Keefe .
47 Davis, R. E., appointed Dec. 20
48 Davis, E. F., appointed Aug. 18
49 McGuire, app'd
Feb 15 . . . .
50 Townsend. . .
No. oflost. tours
12
10
8
8
4
3
2
2
I
I
During the entire year Private Townsend bas not
lost a single tour of duty. For this most excellent
record I recommt-nd that he be officially complimented
by Your Honor, and that a leave of absence for ten
days, wttb fwU pay> *>e granted to J4m during
Ij
I 72 MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
] year, at snch time as he may select, and which does i not conflict with the public interest.
,.| . I am, sir,
j Very respectfully,
l: ! Your obedient servant,
:] K. H. ANDERSOtt,
'j Chief of Police.
CITY MARSHAL'S
CITY MARSHAL'S OFFICE,
SAVANNAH, December 31, 1881.
HON. JOHN P. WHEATON, Mayor :
PEAK SIRI herewith respectfully submit to you
the following report for the year 1881 :
STREETS AND LANES.
The streets and lanes are generally in good order.
The sidewalks are being placed in order as rapidly as
possible, in some instances under my supervision, in
accordance with ordinance.
MARKET.
I have collected from rent of stalls $3,739.25, and
for rent of stores $2.623.60, making a total of $6,362.86,
as compared with $6,185.72 for 1880.
SALE OP CITY LOTS.
Under resolution of Council, I have sold the following lots, under the conditions and terms prescribed
by Council:
Part of Water Works tract........................ $5,000
Lot No. 32. Lloyd Ward.......................... 601
" 21, " " ......................... 801
51, " " .......................... 980
" 50, " " .......................... 655
" 16, " " ......................... 1,325
" 75, " " ..........'........... v .... 695
" 54, " ...............;......'.... 751
" 31, " .......................... 705
" 42, " .......................... 701
;
74 KAYOS'8 ANCTJAL RKPO&T.
Lot No. 43, Lloyd Ward.... ........... .. ......$ 701
" 18, " " .......................... 901
8. Crawford Ward....................... 476
" 51, " " ...................... 501
9. " " East........ .......... >,300
" 3, " " "................... 810
17, " . " .................. 755
45, Forsyth Ward........ ................ 550
" 48, " " ...................... 700
" 62, " ....................... 1,001
" 44, " ........................ 701
42, Stephens Ward ................... ... 801
" 43, " ........................ 801
" 21, " " ....................... 901
" 74, " " .............. ........ 1,001
" 45, " ........................ 1,001
" 9, Tronp Ward.... ..................... 301
" 10, Charlton Ward................ ....... 630
" 70, Lloyd'Ward............ .............. 775
Making a total of................ ............. .127,311
And have collected on account of city lots sold in
1881, and on account of sales of lots made last year,
$19,286 16. I have also sold the Oglethorpe Engine
house and lot for $1.525. I have sold under the direction of Committee on Police, five horses for $412.50,
and under direction of Fire Committee, one horse for
$28.50.
I have collected under executions placed in my
hands, by City Treasurer, $65,216.20, as follows :
Real Estate, 1874.............................1 103 50
" 1875............................. 1,290 32
1876.... ........................ 4,338 35
1877................ ............ 3,60823
1878 ............................ 5,36451
'1879........................ ... 8,10159
1880.... ..... ..... ............ 27,017 28
* J881.,.......,,..,.,.,.,. ,...,,., 1,05757
KAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 75
Specific, 1879.............................$ 22500
"> 1880............................. 1,013 00
1881............................ 12,998 10
Personal, 1881............................. 8 75
Rent of Oglethorpe Engine House.............. 10 00
Fees for Executions........................... 80 00
$65,216 20
Making my total collections for the year........ 92,830 25
I have the honor to be,
Your obedient servant,
L. L. GOODWIN,
Oily Marshal.
HEPORT OF CITY SURVEYOR
CITY SURVEYOR'S OFFICE,
SAVANNAH, GU.., January 1, 1881.
HON. JOHN F. WHEATON, Mayor:
DEAR SIRI have the honor to submit the following
report of the work done in the several departments
enumerated below, for the year ending December 31,
1881:
Streets and Lanes and Parks and Squares
Alderman AYLESWORTH, Chairman.
Dry Culture
Alderman DOYLE, Chairman.
Docks and Wharves
Alderman ROBERTS, Chairman,
Health and Cemetery
Alderman DUNCAN, Chairman.
Public Buildings
Alderman O'CONNOR, Chairman.
j
STREETS AND LANES.
The number and character of the force employed in
this Department at the commencement of the year
were as follows:
Foreman, John Fitzgerald............................ 1
Pavers............ .................................. 3
Laborers.................... .................... .... 16
Cesspool cleaners............................. ...... 2
Stablemen....................... ................... 1
Crossing cleaners.... ................................ 1
Bridge builders of street crossings ..................... 1
Total........................................... 25
Teamsters, colored................................... 10
MAYOR'S ANKUAL RBPOBT. 77
It has been found necessary during the year to increase the force on the streets to thirty-six men, and
the number of teamsters and teams to thirteen. Two
mules have been purchased, and one horse was turned
over to this department by the Department of Fire.
Oh the 17th of December, eight of the men were discharged, reducing the force to twenty-eight men. The
number of teams and teamsters remains the same.
PAVING.
Owing to the amount of travel over the Thunderbolt
road, and the heavy character of the material transported, Council decided in April to have that portion
extending from a point near East Boundary street to
the planing mill of Messrs. Haslam & Hawkins, paved.
The work was begun on the 18th of August, but was
interrupted by the storm of the 27th. It was resumed
October 27th, and finished December 1st The material used has been that known as Pennsylvania blue
stone, or Granwacke. The distance paved was one
thousand and seventy-five feet by a width of twentynine feet, amounting to three thousand, four hundred
and sixty-four yards. A curbing of three by twelve
inch plank has been used. In the accomplishment of
this work a permanent and substantial improvement
has been made. The name "Thunderbolt Road," by
which this thoroughfare has been known, was changed
by Council on the 13th of April to Wheat on street.
The paving of Congress street, between Jefferson and
Montgomery streets, commenced the latter part of last
year, has been completed. Distance, two hundred
and forty-two feet by a width of twenty four feet, and
measuring six hundred and forty-five square yards.
A cobble stone pavement has been laid on Barnard
street between Congress Lane and Broughton, completing the pavement of the street between the latter
named point and the Market. Number of square
yards, five hundred and fifty.
?8 MAYOR'S ANNUAL EEPOKT.
Total amount of new pavement, four thousand, six
hundred and fifty-nine (4,659) square yards.
In repairs to streets already paved the following has
been done:
On West Broad Street................. 585 square yards.
On Canal Street .................... .1,200 " "
On Bay Street................ ........1,500
On Congress Street.................... 100 " "
On Randolph Street................... 300 " "
On East Broad Street........ ......... 650 " "
On River Street.......................1,300 " "
On Whitaker Street................... 650 " "
On Arnold Street..................... 100 "
On Wheaton Street.................... 250 " "
On Drayton Street.................... 100 "
Total............................6,735
CROSSINGS.
The substitution of flagstone for the planking heretofore used in the street crossings has been continued,
as also that of iron plates for plank in the bridges.
The following crossings have been flagged:
On Whitaker Street ............. ....................35
On East Broad Street................................. 1
On Hall Street....................................... 1
On Drayton Street ................................... 2
On West Broad Street................................ 3
Total.......................... ................42
Thirty cast iron bridge plates have been put in,
principally on Bull and Whitaker streets. On Bull
street only a few more are required. When these
shall have been added, this street, from the Bay to the
Park, will need no additional work on the crossings
for years to come. Three thousand feet of flagstone
and four hundred and twenty feet of cut stone for the
bridges, have been purchased during the year.
MAYOR'S ANKUAL REPORT. 79
SEWER EXTENSIONS.
The outlet of the Screven and West Boundary street
sewers is located at a point on wharf lot No. 9, West
ot Canal street, distance from the wharf front about
two hundred and seventy feet. The owner of this
wharf lot having notified the city of his intention to
build a wharf along the front and fill up the lot, (it
having previously been used as a timber boom,) it became necessary 'to either extend the sewers or construct an open drain to convey the water 'from the
sewers to the river. The latter plan has been adopted
by driving piles of six by six inch scantling at intervals of four feet, and sheathing the bottom and sides
with two inch plank. The work was finished in May.
The small sewer on the Eastern side of Wheaton street,
South of Liberty, has been extended to the end of the
pavement. These are the only sewers built during
the year.
BRIDGES.
The bridge across the Springfield canal, owing to its
unsafe condition, has been rebuilt on substantial brick
piers, and the approaches graded. The bridge over
the Ogeeche canal, on the line of Canal street, has been
replanked
ROADWAYS.
A very much needed improvement has been made
on that portion of the Louisville road between the Savannah and Ogeechee, and Springfield canals, by
covering the surface to the depth of from twelve to
fifteen inches with brick bats contributed by the Savannah Brick Manufacturing Company. The road is
now in excellent condition.
DRY CULTURE.
The desire to maintain in the best sanitary condition the low lands east and west of the city, known as
80 MAYOR'S ANNUAL nit>OBt.
Dry Culture lands, and the low lying or swampy portions, south, has induced the Committee in charge -jf
this department to give their consent and hearty cooperation to whatever seemed essential to the accomplishment of this end. The field over which their operations extend is now quite large. Besides the public drains, many ditches through private property are
regularly worked, inasmuch as they constitute part
of a general system, the adjacent property owners, being interested only in so much as passes through their
own lands. A regular force is employed throughout
the year, temporarily increased from time to time, as
the magnitude or character of the work may require.
CANALS.
The curve in the Bilbo canal at its intersection with
the Thunderbolt road, now known as Wheaton street,
is the point at which the greatest accumulation of sand
and debris occurs. It has been found necessary to remove these frequently during the year. The whole
length of the canal has been cleaned twice thoroughly,
and in addition the flood-gate keeper has been
charged with the duty of removing the bars of fecal
matter and sand, which are constantly forming, by
the use of a long-handled rake during ebb tide. The
banks of the canal were but slightly damaged by the
storm, and were easily repaired. One of the gates of
the flood-gate at the mouth was lifted out of its socket
and a portion of the covering plank broken. The repairs were made immediately. The bridge known as
Lawton's, crossing the canal on the line of Perry lane,
was swept away. This has also been restored.
The Springfield canal was carefully cleaned in May.
The growth in this canal is very rapid during the
summer months.
The Perry lane canal has been weeded out and
cleaned three times. The growth in this canal is also
so rapid as to require frequent cleaning.
ANNUAL BZPOKt. 81
The usual work on the ditches and drains East,
West and South of the city has been continued
throughout the year, the hands making the round,
monthly. The grass and weeds on the embankments
have been mown as often as the growth required. The
sand collected in the catch basins along the brow
drain on the East side of the Springfield plantation,
has been removed twice during the year. These basins have accomplished admirably the purpose for
which they were built, viz : to prevent the obstruction
of the drain itself by the large quantity of sand
washed down from the slope.
In May last the services of the trunk-minder for the
Western portion of the lowlands was discontinued,
the Central Railroad agreeing to assume this duty.
STORM DAMAGES.
The injury to the embankments, trunks, etc., from
the storm of the 27th of August was confined almost
entirely to the Eastern lowlands and Hutchinson's Island, the lands on the west suffering but little, all
the repairs having been completed within three days.
On the Eastern side, the embankment across
Lamar's Creek was broken, and nearly the whole line
of river embankment up to the Bilbo canal, levelled.
It required the labor of forty men for nearly a week
to close the break at the creek and replace the embankment, the high tides that prevailed for some time
after the storm rendering the work more difficult of
accomplishment. The whole work of restoring the
embankments up to the canal occupied one month.
HUTCHINSON'S ISLAND.
The effects of the storm on the embankments surrounding the city's lands on this island were very
disastrous. Three large breaks on the North side
fronting Back River, which required a large expendi6
82 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BEPOBT.
ture of time, labor and money to close in 1877, were
left in as bad if not worse condition than at the date
mentioned. A very large proportion of the whole line
of embankments round to the South side were levelled.
The South side suffered less injury, the only break of
any magnitude being on that portion opposite the settlement squara The line dam on the West was broken in six places. The contract for restoring the dams
and closing the breaks has been given by the lessee
to Dr. James J. Waring.
The wharf embankment extending from Willink's
Marine Railway to the canal forming the Eastern
boundary of the lower dry dock, was partially lev
elled at the Eastern portion, and a break of some
magnitude occurred a short distance from the dry
dockboth of the gates to the trunk were lost. This
embankment is being restored by the City.
PUBLIC BUILDINGS.
The interior arrangement of the lower story of the
Fireman's Hall has been altered so as to give greater
convenience and effectiveness in the management of
the apparatus and teams. The stalls have been moved
nearer the engine, and the position of the horses in relation to it changed. The location of the Chiefs office
has been so arranged as to give greater privacy when
necessary. Greater space has been obtained for the
engine, as well as accommodation for forage. A sleeping room has been partitioned off on the hall floor and
a private stairway constructed leading up from the
engine room. Both the engine and hall floors have
been thoroughly repaired and the walls kalsomined.
The floor of the portico of the Exchange building
has been relaid in consequence of insufficient slope,
and recovered with sheet zinc. The walls and wood
work in the Mayor's office has been repainted, and in
the Clerk of Council's office the walls have been kal-
MAYOR'S ANNUAL BEPOBT. 83
somined and the wood work repainted. The solid inside shutters in the Water Works office have been
removed, and blinds substituted. Some improvements have likewise been made in the interior arrangement of the City Dispensary building.
The first story of the Police Barracks building has
been thoroughly repainted and kalsomined, the exterior iron railing repainted, and the salley-port doors,
which were somewhat decayed, repaired and repainted.
The above comprises all the work done on the public buildings prior to August the 27th. The damage
resulting from the storm of that date is as follows :
The City Exchange was unroofed and the wood work
on the North side of the bell tower torn off; the injury
to the interior of the building has not proven so great
as was anticipated. The repairs. were made as soon
as practicable, some delay occurring from the impossibility of obtaining material and workmen. The
central portion of the North wall of the Market was
thrown down and the roof adjacent thereto damaged.
The wall has been rebuilt, but the whole work of
restoratiou has not yet been completed.
The warehouse on Bay street, west of Jefferson was
unroofed as also a portion of the store building at the
foot of West Broad street. These roofs have all been
renewed.
QUARANTINE.
The August storm carried away the whole superstructure of the wharf, but left the piles with the cap
logs intact. The joist, flooring and a large portion of
the weather-boarding of the buildings were swept
away. The stone ballast filling of the break-water
was levelled to half its original height.*- Instead of repairing the buildings it has been deemed best to rebuild them with additional safeguards against injury
from storms. The frames have been increased in
thickness from four inches, to six inches. Diagonal
84 MAYOR'S ANKTTAJ- BIJPOBT.
braces have been let into the studding, extending
from the piles up to the plates, secured by iron bolts
to the former, and wooden pins to the latter. The
floors have been elevated eight feet above the point at
which they were originally placed. The contract for
the work was awarded December 2nd, to Messrs.
Ward and Lodge, and the buildings will be completed and ready for occupation by the middle of February next. Their general appearance will be improved, as the weather-boarding will be planed and
painted, instead of being left rough and white-washed,
as in the former buildings.
The wharf portion, with the exception of fender
piles along the front, has been thoroughly rebuilt.
Respectfully submitted,
JOHN B. HOWARD,
City Surveyor.
REPORT OF CHIEF ENGINEER SAVANNAH FIRE DEPARTMENT.
OFFICE CHIEF ENGINEER
SAVANNAH FIRE DEPARTMENT,
SAVANNAH. GA., December 31, 1881.
HON. JOHN P. WHEATON,
Mayor City of Savannah :
SIR --In compliance with ordinance of the city, I
have the honor to submit herewith the seventh annual
report of the Savannah Fire Department.
The organization of the force remains the same as at
last annual report, viz: Chief Engineer, Assistant
Chief Engineer, Superintendent Fire Alarm Telegraph,
Secretary, three engineers of engines, seven drivers,
one tillerman, one extra driver, and one hundred and
fifty volunteer firemen.
The apparatus and appurtenances consist as follows:
Four steam engines, one hook and ladder truck, three
(horse) hose reels, two (hand) hose reels, 2,500 feet
rubber hose in good order, 900 feet rubber hose only
fit for hydrant use, 950 feet leather hose, which is
worthless, and eleven horses, distributed as follows:
Engine and Hose Reel No. 1, on Bronghton street
near Houston street; attached to same 750 feet rubber
hose and three horses.
Engine and Hose Reel No. 2, on Congress street near
Montgomery street; attached to same 600 feet rubber
hose and three horses.
Engine and Hose Reel No. 3, on South Broad street
and Abercorn street; attached tosame.(B.r>0 feet rubber
hose and three horses.
Engine No. 4, held in reserve at headquarters (Fireman's Hall); attached to same 500 feet rubber hose.
Hook and Ladder Truck, on South Broad street corner of Abercorn street; attached to same two horses,
86 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BEPOET.
Hand Reel on Henry street near Whitaker street,
with 250 feet rubber hose (hydrant pressure).
Hose Reel on Joachim street near Farm street, with
300 feet rubber hose (hydrant pressure).
Two hundred feet rubber hose at county jail (hydrant
pressure).
One hundred and fifty feet rubber hose at police
barracks (hydrant pressure).
Nine hundred and fifty feet leather hose at Department headquarters (worthless).
During the past year the Department has been furnished with two horses in place of those disabled.
Three horses were disposed of in the following manner,
viz: one died, one sold at public sale, and one was
turned over to the Police Department. The extra
horse was turned over to Engine No. 1, in place of one
sold.
I would respectfully recommend that two horses be
purchased for Engine No. 1, as the ones they are now
using are unfit for service. Would also recommend
that two sets of double harness be purchased for Engines No. 1 and No. 2; these companies still having
the harness purchased for them over nine years ago.
Also, that three additional alarm boxes be purchased
and placed in the following localities: one on Farm
street head of Joachim; one on or near East Broad
and Huntingdon streets; one in neighborhood of Arkwright Cotton Factory.
For a more specific schedule of the property of the
Department, number of fires, etc., I respectfully refer
you to the report of the Secretary herewith accompanying.
Losses by fire during the year have been very small.
The men of the force have been prompt in responding
to all alarms, and are deserving of praise for faithful
performance of duty. I respectfully recommend an
annual appropriation by Council to each company of
the Department At present they receive no compenJ
HA YOB'8 ANNUAL BEPOBT. 87
sation. While the men are subjected to expense for
uniforms, etc., a small annual gratuity would be no
more than an act of justice, and would act as an incentive to still greater efforts in the performance of
duty, at all times arduous.
I respectfully refer you to accompanying report of
the Superintendent of the Fire Alarm Telegraph as to
its condition, etc. Although working very well at
present, it requires a great deal of attention, and as
the operator is frequently absent from the city his duty
devolves upon the Chief Engineer.
Great care is taken in the purchase of necessary supplies for the Department, and the result is that our expenses are small compared with others of its size.
Returning thanks to the Police Department for valuable assistance to my officers and men for their faithfulness at all times, and to his Honor the Mayor and
Committee on Fire for many courtesies,
I am your obedient servant,
ADOLPH FERNANDEZ,
Acting Chief Engineer 8. F. D.
REPORT OP SECRETARY OF FIRE DEPARTMENT.
" OFFICE SECRETARY SAVANNAH FIRE DEPARTMENT,
SAVANNAH, GA., December 31, 1881.
A. FERNANDEZ, ESQ.,
Acting CJtief Engineer
Savannah Fire Department:
DEAR SIRI herewith respectfully submit my report as Secretary of the Savannah Fire Department,
for the year ending December 31, 1881.
STATEMENT OF EXPENSES.
The following accounts have been passed and forwarded to City Council for payment during the past
twelve months:
Pay Roll to December 31,1881.... .$11,000 00
Expenses of horses and forage...... 2,230 52
Ordinary expenses lor repairs to apparatus ........ ............. 247 56
Supplies for companies ............ 123 24
Repairs to engine houses .......... 217 96
Appropriation for gas ............. 50 00
Ordinary expenses for Fire Alarm
Telegraph.................... 247 12
Repairs to Department wagon...... 44 00
Purchase of supplies and iucidentals 328.33 $14,488 73
Appropriation annual parade....... 200 00
PBOPERTT ACCOUNT.
Horses purchased......'........... 600 00
Hose, valves, etc., purchased ....... 1,025 96 1,625 96
$16,314 69

FIRES AND ALARMS FROM JANUARY 1 TO DECEMBER 31, 1881. CO
o
DATE.
" 17
Febr'y 23
March 14
April i
I
2
2
5
6
16
18
18
26
May 9
9
June 28
July 29
August i
" 26
Sept. 10
" 30
October 17
" 21
Nov'r 21
" 23
26
HOUR.
1:10 a. m.
1:15 a. m.
10:20 p. m.
9*30 a m
9:45 a. m.
il:ooa. m.
12:301. m.
1:30 p. m.
5:20 p. m.
2:15 a. m.
8:15 a. m.
4:15 a. m.
2:15 p. m.
3:40 p. m.
6:15 a. m.
8:30 a. m.
8:00 p. m.
1 1 :TO a. m.
BOX
I..
17
7
4
35
1,
ft
L,
12
27
'3
23
7
14
41
6
*3
ifi
15
31
27
14.
T, 3*
16
I'REMISES.
Broughton and Whitaker. ....
Bolton Street ..........
Tyler Press Wharf. .......
Hull and Whitaker .......
Central Rail Road Yard .....
Hall and Price .........
Barnard near Hall ........
Farm and Bryan ........
River foot of Price .......
South Broad and East Boundary .
CAUSES.
Unknown . . .
Unknown . . .
Incendiary . . .
Chimney ....
Chimney ....
OWNER OR OCCUPANT.
N. Y. Clothing Store
Max Krauss ....
Mr. Smith .....
Bark Baltic .....
Estate O'Byrne . . .
Puder & Downs. . .
Mr. Mclntire ....
Various ......
Mr. Von Glahn .. . .
T. H. Eslill .....
J. E. Torrent ....
F. Meincke. ....
Brig Lola. .....
M. Helmken ....
LOSSES.
Trifling. .
3-867 94
11,966 20
None. . .
Trifling. .
None. . .
100 00
86oo
3.775 oo
6,71336
65557
Trifling. .
2.000OO
Trifling. .
30000
Trifling. .
2,80000
Triflintr. .
INSURANCE.
$ 20,00000
4,00000
20,00000
2,50000
. . . None.
1,60000
23,00000
21,60000
3,00000
6,20000
3,80000
I
26
<
Deer 12
16
19
28
8:30 p. m.
7:30 p. m.
9:15 a. m.
n:ooa m.
12:15 P- m.
12
41
6
13
L.
L.
Reynolds and Broughton ....
East Broad near Broughton . . .
Unknown . , .
Accidental . . .
Accidental . . .
Sup. Incendiary.
Alfred Kent. ....
3.105 oo
None. . .
200 oo
Trifling . .
Trifling. .
25 oo
$47,89407
23,00000
. . . None.
$128,700 oo
o
"LCO
f
A**tJAL BXP6M-.
RECAPITULATION.
MONTH.
March .....
May ......
July .... .
October .....
Total. . . .
i
! FIRES.
1
. . 2
. . ; I
. . ' I
. ., 10
- 1 2
::! 1
::i I
. . 2
- 5
4
. ' 33
FALSE
ALARMS.
. . . . .
LOSSES.
3.867 94
10,974 36
655 57
Trifling. . .
Trifling. . .
Trifling. . .
300 oo
5.905 00
225 oo
$ 47.894 07
INSURANCE.
3,000 00
$ 128,700 oo
SERVICES OF THE VARIOUS ENGINES, HOSE REELS, AND WERNER HOOK AND
LADDER COMPANY.
w-:
. S o
z
Times reported for duty ....
" off duty when alarm sounded
Total ...........
Z"^
c'5i
W
15
IS
31
z z
v u
c c
u'u
T7'l8
12 13
O O
2931
srS
tit
X
20
II
0
3-
a
s
0
K
17
12
O
29
85
OS
X
71
10
O
31
"n
u"2
E.J
V
#
23
8
o
3i
>"
rt o
"x
I
I
0
2
frg * 3
1*
<
i
o
0
j
INVENTORY OF PROPERTY.
JSngine No. 1, Washington.One two-story engine
honse, one steam fire engine, one horse hose reel,
twenty-two feet of suction hose, eight feet hydrant suction, three horses and harness, four extra wheels for
steamer, one alarm gong, three pipes and nozzles, one
signal lamp, two side lamps, one washstand, one stove
and pipe, lot tools necessary for engine, blankets and
articles necessary for stable, half lot No. 37, Washington Ward, bedsteads and bedding for sleeping
quarters.
ltAYQlt'8 ANNUAL BBPOBT. 93
Engine No. 2. TPaaer. One steam fire engine, fourteen feet of suction hose, eight feet hydrant suction,
three horses and harness, one horse hose reel, fifty
feet street sprinkling hose, blankets and articles necessary for stable, one alarm bell, one alarm gong, one
stove and pipe, lot tools necessary for engine, bedsteads and bedding for sleeping quarters.
Engine No. 3, Barlow. One steam fire engine,
twenty feet of suction hose, eight feet hydrant suction,
three horses and harness, blankets and articles necessary for stable, one stove and pipe, one alarm gong,
one horse hose reel, tools for engine, bedsteads and
bedding for sleeping quarters.
Werner Hook and Ladder Company. One truck,
one extension ladder sixty-five feet, one ladder thirtyfive feet, one ladder thirty feet, one ladder twenty-four
feet, one ladder eighteen feet, two ladders twenty feet,
one ladder twelve feet, one large fire hook with pole,
chain and ninety feet of rope, two extra ladders, eight
small hand hooks, one signal lamp, four axes, two
mauls, two large hooks with chain, two coils rope, one
pair horses and harness, blankets and articles necessary for stable, one alarm gong, bedsteads and bedding for sleeping quarters.
Auxiliary Hose No. 1, Cleburne. One stove and
pipe.
Auxiliary Hose No. 2, Mutual Protection. One
hose carriage.
Property Under Control of Department. One steam
fire engine ( J. W. Anderson), sixteen feet suction hose,
eight feet hydrant suction, lot tools necessary for engine, three alarm gongs, one two-horse wagon, Fireman's Hall, corner South Broad and Abercorn streets,
large alarm bell, alarm bell tower, fire alarm telegraph,
three small gongs, one jack-screw, twelve tarpaulins,
five extra keys to alarm boxes, one desk, one extension table, six chairs, one washstand.
94 MAYOR'S AKVTJAL BEPOBT.
HOSE STATEMENT.
On hand last report: FEET. FEET.
Rubber in good order....................... 2,000
Rubber purchased.......... ............... 500
Leather, hydrant pressure........... .. ... 1,900
Rubber, hydrant pressure ................... 900 5,300
Sold and worthless .......................... 950
On hand this date as follows:
Rubber in good order....................... 2,500
Rubber, hydrant pressure ................... 900
Leather, worthless.......................... 9504,350
Respectfully submitted.
GEORGE MOURO,
Secretary Savannah Fire Department
REPOET OF SUPERINTENDENT OF FIRE ALARM
TELEGRAPH.
SAVANNAH, GA., December 31, 1881.
A. FEBNANDEZ,
Acting Chief Engineer,
Savannah Fire Department
DEAR SIBAs is well known, the fire alarm telegraph suffered much damage by the storm of last August. This has been repaired, and at present the system is in good order and working satisfactorily. I am,
however, of the opinion, the efficiency of the same
could be greatly improved by the adoption of an improved battery, and recommend that the matter be
brought before Council.
Very respectfully,
J. W. JONES,
Superintendent Fire Alarm.
REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT WATER WORKS,
OFFICE WATER WORKS,
SAVANNAH, December 31, 1881.
HON. J. P. WHEATON,
Mayor City of Savannah:
SIRI have the honor to submit the following report upon the condition of the works ander my charge.
RECEIVING RESERVOIRS.
The receiving reservoirs are in good order.
ENGINE HOUSES.
The new engine house is in good condition, having
suffered but little from the storm. The old engine
house had nearly all the tin blown off the roof; as it
is to be abandoned I have not thought it wise to repair it.
PUMPS.
The old pumps have been repaired and are ready
. for service at any time. They have pumped 80,388,-
000 gallons the past year. The duplex pumps are in
good order. They have been thoroughly overhauled
since the storm. They have pumped 745,200,808 gallons during the past year. Total gallons water pumped,
831.588,808.
PIPES, STOP GATES AND HYDRANTS
Are in good order. Seven new fire hydrants and
one six-inch stop gate have been placed on extensions of mains this year.
EXTENSIONS.
Twenty-two hundred feet of six-inch pipe has been
laid on Canal street, and 2,676 feet of six-inch pipe
MAYOR'S^ANNUAI. REPORT. 97
laid on other streets. Total, 4,776 feet six-inch pipe
laid during the past year. Also 264 feet of four inch
pipe have been laid.
Respectfully your obedient servant,
R. D. GUERARD,
Superintendent Savannah Water Works.
REPORT OF JAILER,
SAVANNAH, GA., January 1, 1882.
HON. JOHN F. WHEATON.
Mayor City of Savannah:
SIRNearly twenty-three years have rolled around
since I first entered upon the duties of Jailer of Chatham County, and I have the honor to report that during my charge of the prison there has not been a
single escape, nor in 1876, the year of the yellow fever
epidemic, not a single case of death occurred in prison.
During the year when the dengue or broken bone fever
visited nearly every household in this city, it escaped
the inmates of the Jail. (I merely state this, however, as a fact; it may have been due to the hand of a
kind Providence.)
I desire especially to call the attention of the Commissioners of Chatham County, who have some funds
in hand for building a new jail, to the condition of the
Jail. The present structure is wholly inadequate to
the demands and necessities of our fast growing and
prosperous city, and its condition has been commented
upon by numerous grand juries as a disgrace to our
people and a reflection upon benevolence, which should
touch the pride and hearts of our community.
The Jail was originally built to accommodate-fortyeight prisoners; during past years there has been an
average of eighty confined in it. The cells are entirely too small, necessarily damp from insufficient ventilation, and have very little light. Of these cells there
are sixteen (eight below and eight above) which are
entirely destitute of either light or ventilation, and in
these cells I have been obliged by the law to crowd from
three to four prisoners at a time. The wings, which
MAYOB'S ANKtrAt BBPOBT. 99
exclude the light and ventilation from these sixteen
cells, are exceedingly insecure, and can only be used
down stairs on the one side as a bathing room and on
the other they have been perpetually closed up because of their insecurity. The up stairs wing on the
east sUe is utilized as a room for watchmen, on the
west side for sick and convalescent prisoners. I have
refrained, for obvious reasons, from time to time, from
thus publicly calling attention to the condition and
the insecurity of the Jail, but now that it is rapidly
growing worse and worse, it would be a direlection of
duty on my part to remain silent any longer. The
walls are in a dilapidated condition; the lining of the
Jail is rapidly rotting; the iron grating to windows,
walls and woodwork is insecure. The prison is cold
and dingy, there are no means of heating it, and
generally, in every detail that pertains to comfort,
convenience and security, I regard the Jail as altogether unfit for its use and a disgrace to civilization
which calls for some prompt and decisive action. I
hoped for some legislative action by our immediate
representatives, but it was only a hope.
In addition to the large number of prisoners, I have
been seriously inconvenienced by the increased number of lunatics which have been sent to prison. There
are no conveniences or comforts for those unfortunate
people and the voice of humanity pleads for them.
DISCIPLINE, SANITARY CONDITION, ETC.
General good order and discipline have been maintained. The rules for the government of the Jail have
been enforced with firmness, but with a consideration
consistent with law, mercy and the dictates of humanity. The conduct of the inmates has been, as
usual, good.
There has also been great attention given to the
sanitary regulations. The utmost attention is paid to
cleanliness. The prisoners are furnished with cloth-
100 MAYOR'S ANNUAL EEPOBT.
ing when needed, and require^ to bathe their persons
and change their apparel regularly. The halls and
prison cells and the inclosure are whitewashed, disinfected and cleaned regularly. The health of the inmates is usually good. The Jail physician, Dr. Wm.
G. Bulloch, is very attentive to any call by day or
night. He has always responded with pleasantness.
The amount due the City of Savannah for dieting
prisoners at the jail, is as follows:
Chatham County............................... *9?3 90
Bryan County................................ 977 00
Bulloch County................................ 259 00
Glynn County.......... ........................ 178 90
Effingham County...... ................... ... 19790
Mclntosh County............................... . 2 20
United States.................................. 109 40
Total................................... $2,658 30
NUMBER OF PRISONERS DISCHARGED AND REMAINING
_________IN JAIL DURING THE YEAR 1881. _______
: Discharged. In Jail.
MONTHS. I
i Whites. Colored. Whites. .Colored.
January. . . ......
February .........
March ..........
April .....'......
May. ..... . . . . .
July. ..... . . . . .
September. ........
October. .........
November. ........
> 28
... 30
... 27
. . . ' 24
... 16
... 14
. . . ' I7!
.... 22|
... 13
... 1 50
... 19
... 37
54
69
67!
61
70
102
87
130
62
57
94
84
13
13
9
o
8
9
8
14
13
14
9
46
49
63
67
80
54
67
58
57
80
55
28
On chain gang, December 31, 1881, convicts, 28.
Of the total number of prisoners received during
the year
There were from Chatham County .................. 692
There were from the United States .................. 8
AKNUAL BEPOBT. 101
There were from other counfies ..................... 30
There were from Mayor's Court..................... 659
Making a total of........................ ... 1,389
To this must be added the number of lunatics confined.. 21
Making total number in Jail during 1881...... 1,410
An increase over previous year of.................... 251
The above prisoners were committed for the fallowing offences:
Murder .......................................... 36
Assault with Intent to Murder.......... ........... 54
Burglary .................... .................... 21
Arson........................................ ... 2
Perjury ................. ........................ 12
Robbery. . ... ................................... 5
Bigamy .......................................... 4
Larceny. ......................................... 179
Misdemeanors .................................... 1,076
Add Lunatics..................................... 21
Total...................................... 1,410
The total expenses of the Jail for the year, including
salaries, pay of Jail guard, fuel, light, repairs, food
for prisoners, etc , amount to $10,484.32; the receipts
to $16,264.93. Excess of receipts over expenditures,
$6,780.61.
"PACTS AND FIGURES."
I hope I shall be pardoned for giving a word of notice finally to a pamphlet, written by some one unknwon
to the community, bearing the above title. This pamphlet would not be noticed only that I wish to exhibit
to my fellow citizens, Whose eyes this report may
reach, the falsity of its assertions, and that its base
purpose was only to gratify a defeated politicians
chagrin and spite. His purpose failed. It says:
'"The Jail has been managed in a wasteful and ex
travagant manner under the present system."
102 MAJOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
This is a gross fabrication. Does any respectable
citizen believe that under the administration of such
pure and honorable men as Edward C. Anderson,
John Screven and John P. Wheaton (I only allude to
them as the so called pamphlet, "Facts and Figures,"
alludes specially to their terms of office) would allow
extravagance in any department of the city ? Note
the fact that this does not allude to the Jailer, because
contracts are given out for bread, meat, etc., by the
City Council, and if any little thing outside is to be
purchased, the Jail Committee either purchases or
orders the same. " Facts and Figures," page 31, says:
" Whereas, it is shown above that there could only
have been an average of fifty-three prisoners per diem
during that year, which provokes the question: wJiat
was done with the food for nineteen prisoners per diem,
or its equivalent in money during that year ? the said
equivalent in money being by the above estimate
about $792. It is significant that no mention is made
in the Jailer's report for said year (1880) of the absence of forty prisoners per diem during two-thirds of
said year, which forty were sustained and housed by
the county, the cost of which will be hereafter mentioned."
The above, from page 31, is a tissue of falsehoods
only to deceive the Georgia Legislature for the purpose
of carrying out a preconcerted plan to displace the
Jailer by an enactment to consolidate the Jailer's and
Sheriff's offices, thirty days after the passage of the
Act; which Act was unanimously offered by our
representatives, but which failed on account of the
short allowance of time. It is a known fact by every
Board of Aldermen that I have had the honor to serve
under, that I have saved thousands of dollars by my
strict attention in dieting prisoners, giving them sufficient food and allowing no waste. The imputation of
the fatherless "Facts and Figures" is beneath the
notice of an honorable man, and is only noticed to
show up its purpose.
MAYOR'S AKNUAL REPORT. 103
It has been asserted that the county can save thousands of dollars by the consolidation of the Jailer's
and Sheriff's offices, which assertion has been made
by persons who know as much about the dieting and
maintaining of a prisoner as a babe knows about the
moon. I assert that the expenses will be one-third
more by consolidation to the cpunty or tax payers
than they are under the present system. The county
only pays for prisoners charged with felonies and larcenies, and furnishes a physician to attend the sick.
The city has committed 659 prisoners during the last
year. These prisoners the county has not paid one
cent for. They have been fed and clothed by the city,
and many worked by the Drainage Commissioners of
the county. If 659 prisoners added to the expenses
of the county under the consolidated Act, together
with the salary of Jailer, deputy and watchmen, can be
a saving to the tax payers, I must admit that I am
unable to calculate.
Outside of any personal interests, I know it is a
dangerous undertaking for this community ever to
permit its Jailer to be elected by the people; not because the people cannot be trusted in every and all
elections for their officers, but the man that is ever
elected Sheriff and Jailer will naturally have to stoop
to public favor. Thousands of people, and not very
good people, apply for admission to the Jail, whom a
careful Jailer will not permit to visit the prisoners.
Elected by the people, will he refuse to admit any one ?
Will he not be dependent upon their votes ?
It is with regret that I am compelled to allude to
these matters in my report, but a sense of justice
prompts me to do so.
Very respectfully,
WARING RUSSELL,
Jailer.
REPORT OF CLERK OF THE MARKET.
OFFICE CLERK OF MARKET,
SAVANNAH, January 1,1882.
HON. JOHN P. WHEATON, Mayor of Savannah :
DEAR SIRI have the honor to submit herewith a
statement of Market fees collected through this office
for the year ending December 31, 1881, and turned
into the City Treasury ;
Total amount collected................. $9,700 05
Average monthly collections............$808 33
Average weekly collections.............. 186 53
Increase as compared with 1880......... 1,011 35
I have the honor to be,
Tour humble servant,
W. H. BORDLBY,
Assistant and fating Cleric of Market.
REPORT OF THE HEALTH OFFICER.
OFFICE OF HEALTH OFFICER,
SAVANNAH, January 1, 1882.
HON. JOHN P. WHEATON,
Mayor of Savannah, Ga.:
SIRI have the honor to submit this, my official re
port, for year ending December 31st, 1881.
The Board of Sanitary Commissioners with same
membership as for year 1880, have held regular meetings bi-monthly, immediately preceding the regular
meetings of the City Council, and special ones whenever deemed necessary by His Honor, the chairman.
In accordance with ordinance, I have at each regular meeting submitted to the Board, a written report
which is recorded upon the Minute book, embracing
the sanitary condition of the city and surroundings,
and a full statement of the workings of the Health office. The city and environs have been most closely
policed and especial care has been devoted to keep
them in good condition. The principal nuisances
complained of have been faulty sewer connections arid
objectionable sinks. Nearly all of these have been
promptly abated. In some instances long delays, unavoidable on the part of officials, have occurred, and the
same will be repeated in the future until a law is created, and enforced, which will give the city authorities all power to promptly abate any nuisance, at the
expense of the property, holding the same as indemnity.
Good health has prevailed during the entire yeai1,
and, excepting diphtheria, a few cases of scarlet fever,
and one case of small-pox, the city and vicinity have
been free from contagious or infections diseases.
106 . HATCH'S AHITDAL BIPOBT.
No case in the slightest resembling yellow fever was
noticed by any member of the medical profession, although reports to the contrary were circulated in the
press of neighboring cities. No summer passes without the circulation of similar damaging reports, the
object and general result being interference with commerce and retardance of travel. An individual has
redress by law for slander, and I see good reason why
communities should be equally protected.
The Sanitary Board have been persistent in their efforts to suppress the disease diphtheria, which has in
Savannah, as in many other cities of the States, prevailed to troublesome extent daring the year. In
houses where the disease has made appearance the
case or cases' have been isolated as much as practicable. Children living in these houses have been prohibited from attending schools, visiting in such instances has been interdicted as much as possible,
premises have been cleaned, disinfectants freely resorted to, and in cases of death from this, as with
other contagions or infectious diseases, public funerals have not been allowed.
On May 24th, I had removed from William street,
western portion of the city, to the small-pox hospital,
a white family comprising father, mother and seven
children, the youngest, an infant of five months, having
a clearly defined case of small-pox. This family, who
are Italians, arrived in Savannah about March 1st,
from Bradford, Penn., ma New Tork. No sickness of
any kind occurred in the family from time of arrival
until the development of the case above noted. As
there had been no small-pox in this city for years, the
case of this infant must be accounted for by the
bringing into use of some article of infected bedding
or clothing which had been trunked away. This explanation is all the more probable as small-pox was
known to be prevailing both in Pennsylvania and
New York at the time of their arrival in this city. Ex-
MAYOB'S ANNUAL REPORT. 107
cepting the little patient, each member of the family
had well defined vaccine marks upon their arms ; notwithstanding this. I re-vacinated them all, without
result, although I used virus just taken from the arm.
The infant recovered, and no member of this large
family at any time presented the slightest symptom of
the disease. All bedding and clothing belonging to
this family was sent to the Hospital. The house from
which they had been removed was thoroughly cleaned
and washed with carbolic acid solution, disinfected
several times with chlorine gas, and then lime washed.
When the case had recovered and it came time to discharge the family, all bedding was burned at the hospital, as was all clothing which could not be boiled.
This was done under my personal supervision New
bedding and clothing or money was given by the city
authorities in return for property destroyed by Sanitary order. The family came to the city and re-occupied the house from which they had been removed
without the development of any other case of this disease. The protective character of vaccination is most
forcibly demonstrated by the history of this family ;
eight members of whom were for one month constantly
subjected to the powerful infection of this dread disease, all of them escaping its loathsome and serious
consequences, unquestionably because of vaccine protection.
During January 1880 the Sanitary Board endeavored, as a health precaution, to make vaccination general in the city.- The city physicians were supplied
with the best of bovine virus and the community was
publicly notified that those who were unable to pay
would be vaccinated free of charge. This effort was
productive of but little good result. There exists with
a large number of our population, a prejudice against,
or a total disregard of vaccination. At this time
when small-pox is prevailing in sixteen States and
two Territories of the United States, and in a number
108 MAYOR'S AJTKTTAL BEPOKT.
of cities and localities with which Savannah is in almost daily communication, it is imperative that steps
should be taken by which our community will be
protected, should the disease be introduced into our
midst Unfortunately the State law does not make
vaccination compulsory, but citizens can do much to
protect their families, and by combined action, the
community at large, by positively refusing to keep or
have in employ any servant who is not vaccinated. It
is a known fact that the epidemic of small-pox in this
city of 1876 and 1877 was kept alive by servants who
slept away from their places ot daily occupation, in
houses where they aided in secreting small-pox cases;
leaving these pest-houses they came in contact with
those who hired them, and others, thus spreading the
disease broad-cast. I most respectfully suggest that
the city authorities of Savannah memorialize the next
session of the General Assembly of Georgia for the
passage of a law which will give authority for making vaccination compulsory when said officials shall
deem it necessary for the health and safety of this
community.
I am pleased to report that through the suggestion
and recommendation of the Sanitary Board, a law was
enacted by the General Assembly of Georgia during
their last session, which empowered the Board of
Public Education of Chatham county, to make such
regulations regarding vaccination being a pre-requisite for admission into schools under their jurisdiction,
as in their judgment they might deem necessary for
the protection of the public health and safety, and
that the honorable body acting under this authority,
have published an order, requiring that from and after January 1st, 1883, each pupil of a public school in
Chatham county, mnst present a certificate of successful vaccination, from a physician, before they will be
entitled, to a seat in said schools.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 108
This city was visited on August 37th by a hurricane,
which in violence, surpassed any other occurring in
this vicinity of which there is any recollection or record. The loss of life in the immediate vicinity being
estimated at from one hundred and fifty to two hundred, and the destruction of public and private property truly immense.
The river banks immediately east and west of the
city on the city side of the river, and .those upon
Hutchinson's Island, nortli of the city, were badly
broken, subjecting the lowlands in these sections to
tidal inundation, which, occurring at such a season of
the year, naturally caused a deal of anxiety among
. our citizens lest serious sickness result therefrom.
The breaks upon the city side of the river were
promptly repaired, and after the freshening of the
soil by tidal flows, the inflow of water was prevented
and the ground allowed to dry. No perceptible effect
was noticed during the fall either in the character or
increase of diseases. The breaks upon Hutchinson's
Island are still open and the Island is subjected to
tidal flow. This property is leased from the city of
Savannah by Mr. C. F. Stubbs, with a lease stipulation that said Island, so far as rented by him, shall
be kept under dry culture. Still the tide has run riot
over this property from the date of the hurricane up
to this time, with a prospect of holding control for
weeks to come. I have made special report of the
unsanitary condition of this -Island at every meeting
of the Sanitary Board held since the occurrence of the
hurricane, and have advocated the enforcement of
such measures as would, beyond any question of a
doubt, ensure the reclamation of this land to dry culture on or before March 1st, 1882, in order that the
sobbed soil may thoroughly dry before the hot suns
of spring and summer bake upon it. The condition
of this Island, just opposite the city, besides being
unsanitary in the extreme, is an eyesore and a source
110 MATCH'S AHKTTAL REPORT.
of apprehension and disquietude to the community at
large.
Dr. James J. Waring is the contractor for the repair
of this important work, and it is to be hoped that it
will be completed in time to prevent serious results.
Within the last year I have issued eight certificates
for burial of whites who had no physician in attendance, and during the same time'have issued 'one hundred and sixty eight for burial of blacks and colored
under similar circumstances. The suicidal negligence
of a bulk of the negro population in not availing
themselves of the offered charities of hospital, medieal
attendance and dispensary, is lamentable in the extreme, for which I can suggest no remedy.
The negro race as a class, when they have medical
attendance, but poorly carry out instructions regarding medication, diet or sanitation ; their poverty,
sqnalidity, want of vitality, taints of former diseases
and carelessness, predisposes to serious attacks of sickness, which under the best care, in result, compare
most unfavorably with the white race. The greatly
increased ratio of death, per one .thousand of aggregate population, which the blacks and colored give to
the mortuary statistics of cities like Savannah, having
a population nearly equally divided between whites
and blacks, is unjust in the extreme, and gives an incorrect idea of the health of such localities ; nevertheless, these statistics are published and circulated
broadcast, to the serious detriment of Savannah, and
many other southern cities. I have endeavored during the past year, with some good results, to convince
the representatives of the sanitary press of the United
States of the injustice they are doing by publishing
these statistics, without drawing the color line so
plainly that the race ratio will be apparent to the most
careless reader.
The management of quarantine under the Board of
Sanitary Commissioners has been conducted upou the
VAYOB'S ANNUAL BEPOBT. Ill
basis which, was established at the organization of said
Board in 1877, the desire and endeavor being to impede commerce as little as possible, and with determination to use every measure to prevent the introduction of disease into the city. I submit a synopsis of
the rules which have governed Quarantine at this port
during the past year.
1. On and after the opening each year of the National Qaarantine Station (Sapelo Sound), all vessels
from infected or suspected latitudes arriving with
sickness on board, or having had same during voyage, must be directed by the pilot to proceed to said
National Quarantine Station.
2. Any vessel arriving at this port bearing the certificate of the National Quarantine Officer, must be
brought to anchor at the Quarantine Station, and
there remain until released by the order of the Board
of Sanitary Commissioners.
3. During the closure of said National Quarantine
Station, all vessels such as above described must anchor at the Port Qaarantine Station, under personal
direction of the Quarantine Officer.
4. Vessels from any foreign port direct or via American ports, with or without sickness on board, will,
during the entire year, be compelled to anchor and remain at the Quarantine Station until released by written permit of the Quarantine Officer.
6. All vessels arriving at this port with sickness on
board, or having had same during voyage, will at all
seasons of the year, no matter from what port, either
American or foreign, anchor at the Qaarantine Station, and there remain until released by order of the
Board of Sanitary Commissioners.
6. Vessels from infected or suspected latitudes will,
during the entire year, be required to discharge any
and all ballast at the Quarantine Station, to have bilges and limbers cleaned and sweetened, and from No-
112 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BBPORT.
vember 1st to May 1st of each year be subjected to at
least one fumigation.
7 On and after May 1st and until November 1st of
each year, and longer if the Board of Sanitary Commissioners so determine, all coastwise vessels or steamers from latitudes south of Cape Hatteras, other than
those by inland route, must anchor at the Quarantine
Station. Steamers and vessels from' non-infected or
non-suspected ports will not be detained longer than
necessary for the Quarantine Officer to satisfy himself
of their perfect sanitary condition. Vessels from infected or suspected latitudes will have to comply with
section 6. be fumigated twice, and detained at least
ten days.
8. Coastwise steamers and vessels arriving at this
port by inland route, from latitudes south of Cape
Hatteras, between May 1st and November 1st, and
later if the Board of Sanitary Commissioners so determine, must be inspected and given permit by the
Health Officer before the landing of either passengers
or freight
9. Pilots must in each case, before boarding, make
inquiry as to the sanitary condition of vessels; in
no case must they board if the vessel has sickness
on board, or has had same during voyage; in such
cases they must either direct to Sapelo Quarantine
Station, lead the vessel in, or have their small boat
hoisted alongside clear of the water, and in this way
pilot the vessel in.
The hurricane of which I have already made mention destroyed the building and wharf at the Quarantine Station, and so filled the water front at the moorage place with rocks, that up to this date vessels have
not been able to discharge ballast at the usual point.
In consequence of this hinderance, vessels with clean
hard stone ballast, after fumigation, have, since November 1st, been allowed to bring same to the city.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 113
The Spanish barks Marietta and Bosetta were in
Quarantine at this time. The former broke her moorings, and was totally wrecked upon a sand bar west
of the station. The Rosetta was driven ashore west
of FortPulaski, but was subsequently gotten off, having fortunately sustained but little damage. Since the
destruction of the building at Quarantine, the headquarters of the Quarantine Officer have been upon Tybee Island. The work of rebuilding at the Station is
now progressing, and in a few weeks the Quarantine
Officer will be re-located in his old quarters.
The steamships Maharaha and Brinkburn, the former from Martinique, on August 25th, the latter from
Havana, on September 29th, arrived at this port with
yellow fever on board, and were sent to the National
Quarantine Station, Black Beard Island. After release from this station, the Maharaha returned to the
port of Savannah, where she was detained at the
Quarantine Station until re-cleaned and re-fumigated,
when permit was given for her to come to the city.
The Brinkburn, after re-touching at this port, steamed
to Charleston, S. C.
These mentioned steamers were the only vessels arriving at this port during the year with any sickness
on board, and their arrival under such circumstances
demonstrates the benefits to be derived by this port
from the National Quarantine Station at Black Beard
Island, and I earnestly recommend that the municipal
authorities of Savannah make every exertion to secure
a sufficient appropriation from the United States Congress to complete the outfit of this station and ensure
its permanency.
During December last a delegation of health officials
from Charleston, S. C., who were in attendance upon
the meetings of the American Public Health Association, held a conference with his Honor the Mayor and
other members of the Sanitary Board of this city, and
discussed quarantine regulations as applicable and
8
114 MAYOR'S ANNCTAL BEPOKT.
desirable for the ports of Savannah and Charleston,
which resulted in an assurance from the visiting delegation that if some few stated changes were made in
the now existing quarantine code of Savannah, that a
similar one, including port charges, would be adopted
by the health authorities of Charleston. It is to be
hoped that quarantine regulations agreeable to both
cities will be adopted before the opening of the ap
preaching summer. This will prove advantageous and
protective alike to both, and effectually stop the nuisance of continual assertions and complaints from interested parties, that one port by its quarantine laws
" was driving commerce to the other.
In closing these remarks upon the quarantine of this
port, I respectfully repeat the recommendation made
by me in official report lor 1880, advocating the construction of a telephone line from the City to the Quarantine Station, and the construction of a tramway,
with dump cars, upon the wharf at said station, in
order to facilitate unballasting of vessels.,
The Small-Pox Hospital and other property of the
City at Timber Landing was but slightly damaged
during the hurricane and is in perfect condition for
immediate use.
I have given medical and surgical attendance to the
Police force and paid portion of the Fire Department.
The health of these bodies of men compare favorably
with preceding years, the only death recorded being
that of Sergeant H. H. Harvey, of the Police force, who
was shot while in discharge of his duty on September
19th and died from effects of same on October 20th,
1881.
I am, sir,
Very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
J. T. McPARLAND,
Health Officer.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 115
Mortuary Statistics, January 1st to December 31st, 1881.
Compiled from the Records by Frank L Rebarer, Clerk of Council.
DISEASES.
Aneurism abdominal aorta.
Anthrax resulting pyaemia .
Aneurism right subcalavian
WHITES.
Adults ICh'd'n
1 (A Ifl
l.'l 1:1
IO I 2 . .
3 ....
2 3 ....
. . : . I I
Angina .........;
Bronchitis, capillary . . .
Bronchitis, vesicular . . .
I ....
COLORED.
Adults
CO
cu
Females
Ch'd'n Ti~
s 1
"rt | g
17 2
....
3

I . . '. .
3
2
i
2
I
1
Casualty, fracture of skull .
Cancer of the breast. . . .
Cancer, uterine ....
Carcinoma ot stomach. . .
Cancer tumor of brain. . .
Chronic hypertrophy liver .
Child-bed ........
I . . '. .
I '4 . . 1. .
. . I 1 . ...
1. . I.. ...
... 2 . . '. .
Cholera, acute, non-contag's
I . .
I . .
7
i
i
I 2
. . I
I

i
I . .
2 . .
I . .
I . .
I
I .... . . . -
2 . . ... . .
Congestion of the brain . .
Cochexia, malarial ....
Congestion of the lungs. .
II 10 . . . .
14122
.... 76
14
2 ....
18 17 3
337 1119
r . . .
| I 2 I 2 121
1 2 . . I ..'..-
Congestion of stomach . . I ...........
i
I
i
TOTAL.
Whites. Colored.
i". .
i . .
I3 1 22
... I
3' I
I 1 - .
1 I
3 3
. . i i
2 I
I
. . 12
I 2
2' I
. . : i
. . II. >'. .
8
2
9
i
i
.: 2
i' 4
il i
2 I
5 3
I
2 I
14 22
I. I
2 . .
I 2
21 38
9 15
13 20
I I
6 5
2 ' -I
2, 2
i:. .
TOT'L
Whites and
Colored.
i
i
35
i
4
i
i
i
i
IO
6
i
3
i
12
3
I
3
J
3
2
I
5
2
3
8
I
i
I
I
3
36
2
I
2
3
59
24
33
2
11
3
4
1 i
116 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BEPOKT.
MORTUARY STATISTICSJANUARY 1, 1881, TO
DECEMBER 81, 1881.
DISEASES.
Disease heart, mitral valves
Debilitv. .........
Dropsy .........
Disease of the heart ....
Diarrhoea, chronic ....
Fever, irritative surgical . .
Fever, malarial rem't . . .
Fever, Congestive. ....
Fever, Malarial Intermittent
Fever, Typho- Malarial . .
Gangrene of t he foot . . .
Castro Hepatetis .....
Gangrene of Scrotum . . .
Heart, fatty degeneration .
Hereditary Syphilis ....
!
WHITES. ;. COLOR
- -!l
Adults 'Ch'd'n Adults C
, in vi M ! v 4> [ b
8 1 8 |- 8 | !
"a ** "a ~S ^ -
.... 3 i . . - - -
.... 2 I . . . . .
2 2 . . I . . 2 .
312.. 7 12
I ...... 5 '
I . . 17 23 ....
3 I ..-- 6 4
2 .... I I .
I 2 5 -
I 2 ......... I . . I .... I .
.... I J . . - - .
. . I
. . I
.... 2 I . . .
. . I
5 7 I - - 65
6133 I
I 2 I I . . - -
IO . . . . 2 I . .
3 .... i 2 i
i . . i .-..!--.
j . . ..;..; i ...
. . . . .... I ...
t '
:: :: .!::ir.::i:
2 . . . . . . 'l I ...
1. .
ED. j TOTAL. JTOT'L
h'd'n ' 1
t
*1
g
ll'P J= -5
3 <5
... I . . I
. . . 4. . 4
131 4
... i . . i
... i . . i
^53 8
2 . . 2 2
2 I 6 22 28
73 i " 6 '7
I . . 12 3
4 3 41 7 48
4 ' 4 '5 "9
I . . 12 3
... 22 4
... 2 . . 2
J2.. 3 3
... I . . I
.136 9
... 3. . 3
... 2 I 3
... 2 . . 2
I .... 2 2
. . . 3- 3
..... J I
2 3 13 16 29
. . . I . . I
4 2 13 7 20
2 I 5 3 8
3 3 12 7 19
II 2
. . . ' 2 3
i I 1 3 8
i' ' a 3
. .. . if. .
t i
:::!! i..:
| 2 ' ' 3
I! 2
i. . ..1 : i
MA TOR* 8 ANNtTAl 11?
MORTUARY STATISTICS-JANUARY 1, 1881, TO
DECEMBER 81, 1881.
'!
WHITES. COLORED.
Adults Ch'd'n Adults Ch'd'n.
DISEASES. I 1
J
!-
0> "a
s
Hepatitis. ........ i
Intussusception of bowels . . .
Inflammation of liver, acute . .
Old age ......... 4
Phthisis pulmonalis. . . . 1 18
Phthisis senile ...... i
, t/i tn I tf- t/i 1 u vlo> &> "^ c/j ' ";; t/i ' rj (/] ""3
a c 4> p
' S g g
U. S d. S fc. JS te
3 -.: t> 5 . - I
I . . . .ii I ......
-4::::. 3 1::::
...... i
i .... i ..... i .... i .....
........ ... i
I .... 2 .....
.... I .. I ....
..... I ......
.......... 2 2
TO A 1
. . I I ........
2 ...... 2 ....
I . . 1 2' ....
.--.. 1 .....
I .... . I . .
5 9 .... 12 10:
. . i i . .....'
!
1 TOTAL.
i
I - ..
"2 <u S
.:: o
'S ?
S
i
1 i
4
i
2
I
2
I 1
4
2
2
',
i
14
i 6 3 . . i 2 3' ,2
.... i . .....' i
T' ' i ;
i- ........... .|, -
. . 3 ... . . . . . .) *
I .... . .....'
13 . . 6 18 . . . .
...... . . I : .
...... I ......
I . . . .....
2 .... I ......
....... Ii ......
13 I I' 2O 38 2 I
. i;.: . ..ii..;.. .-I..
"
4
2
I
33
l
12
1
4
I
i
I
I
I
'.
1
' 2
I
I
4
5
2
3
i
i
22
6
I
24
1
7
i.
i
i
I
i
61
i
j 3 Whites and| Colored.
20
2
5
5
i
2
3
2
I
I
4
2
. I
I
'4
2
.4
4
I:
2
I
I
36
2
)S
I
I
I
3
I.
41
I
II
I
I
I
I
3
, i
2
2
94
2
118 MAYOR'S ANNUAL HEPOKT.
MORTUARY STATISTICSJANUARY 1, 1881, TO
DECEMBER 81, 1881.
COLORED.
DISEASES.
WHITES.
Adults Ch'd'n iAdults Ch'd'n
TOTAL. TOT'L
5 5
2
I - . ,
2 2O
I ,
7 17 13! i6! 57
. 2 . . || 2 3
2 . . - . !l I 2
.....! i . -
i .
Pneumonia. ....... 4
Pneumonia, pleuro ......
Pneumonia, typhoid. .....
Poison by drinking potash. . .
Providential causes ......
Pueperal convulsions .......:..! i .......
Pueperal fever ........ 2 .... j. ....... i 2
Pyaemia ......... I -..... i . . . I
Rash. .............. i . . ; . . i ..--',: i
Scepticaimia ....... I I ..'..: I ....'; 2
Scrofula. ................ i. .... i 7
Senile gangrene. .......-.... I ..-.''.. *
Softening of the brain ... 2 -....,......- !j 2 . .
Spasms ............. i 2 .... 19 i? i 3 36
Stricture, Urethra .......--....; 2
Stricture, rectum ....... i . . . . | i
Suicide, (opium) ............. 'i. .
Synrope ................. 'i. . . .
Syphilis ......'.....--.... I 2 2 . . - |j
Tabes Mesenterica .............. i. ... *;
Tetanus ......... I-- I.. 2.... 1
Tetanus traumatic .... r--. ...:>.. ....-
Teething .... ............ 1. ... 5 2
Trismus traumatic .............. i . . -
Trismus Nascentium .......
Thrush . . . . .........
2:. . 19
Typhoid fever .......... i i . . i 2 i
Ulcer .... .............. !|. . ' i ....
Ulceration of'bowels ....... 2 ..';. .'......
Uterine hemorrhage ...........'...... I
2
i . .
. : 7
i
4 4
i . .
Unknown causes ............. . . '. . i
Undefined ....
Worms. .....
Whooping Cough
Total deaths in the city . . 143 122 100 92'
Brought dead to the city . . 27 21 8 21
2 10 15 4
. i. . . . 2!
i84i7i 196 152
22
Still born infants . IS 12'. .
22 20 26
. . 65 45
453703 1,156
Total number of interments 170 143 123 125 |zo6 193 281 223
i| I i i
2 4
. > l'
2'- !
. I I
. ! 2
6 31
. ! 2
..I 10
73
5
3
i
i
1
2
2
3
7
1
2
39
2
3
I
I
4
i
5
i
7
i
45
I
6.
j
2
1
1
37
2
IO
77 90
27 no
557903
I
'167
137
1,460
MAYOR'S ANNUAL KEPOKT. 119
AGES. Whites. Colored. Total.
Under i year. .
Between i and
Between 5 and
Between 10 and
Between 20 and
Between 30 and
Between 40 and
Between 50 and
Between 60 and
Between 70 and
Between 80 and
Between 90 and
Between 100 and
Total . . .
5 years. ........
10 years. ........
20 years. ........
30 years. ........
40 years. ........
50 years. ........
60 years. ........
70 years. ........
80 years. ........
go years. ........
100 years. ........
105 years. ........
Population Whites. ...........
Population Colored. ..........
71 175 246
87 120 207
35 27 62
14 36 SO
47 97 '44
42 73 115
54 59 "3
34 . 33 67
31 29 60
21 2/ 48
12 22 34
224
3 3 ' 6
453 i 703 1.156.
....I..... I9-H4
.......... 15.765
Total .......................... 34,879
Annual ratio per 1,000 whites. .............. 23.67
Annual ratio per 1,000 colored .............. 54-49
REPORT OP THE SUPERINTENDENT ODORLESS
EXCAVATING MACHINE.
SAVANNAH. G-A., January 1,1882.
HON. JOHN F. WH EATON,
Mayor of Savannah :
DEAR SIRI have the honor to forward herewith
report of the work done by the Odorless Excavating
Machine during the year 1881.
Number of privies cleaned......................... 555
Number re-cleaned........ .......... i ............ 449
J)ry wells cleaned................................. 6
Matter removed (cubic feet) ....................... 67,788
Cost of Department for the year............... .$11,408 56
Amount collected for repairs to sinks ........... 1,479 41
Net cost...............:................. $9,929 15
Very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
W. J. CLEABT,
Superintendent 0. E. M. Department.
REPORT OP CITY PHYSICIAN.
EASTERN DIVISION.
SAVANNAH, GA., January 16, 1883.
HON. JOHN P. WHEATON, Mayor :
SIBI have the honor to submit my annual report
for year ending December 31st, 1881, with tabulated
statement, showing number of patients visited, whites
and colored; number of visits made, and also total
number o/ death certificates issued by me during the
year 1881, of which there were ten whites and fortyfour colored, as follows:
MONTHS.
March ........
May. ........
July .........
Total. .......
'Patients Visited.
t ' i
3 -2
( o"
-o
. . . 69
... 86
... 72
... 83
... 103
... 127
... 122
. , . 118
. . . 99
... 104
. . . 67
... 1108
"3
105
96
1 08
93
134
IOO
147
136
112
114
78
1336
Total
Whites
and
Colored.
174
182
180
176
237
227
269
254
211
318 145
2444]
Total
Number
of
Visits.
577
597
738
655
553
710
713
852
798
744
689
541;
8167
Total
Num'r
of
D'ths.
2
5
4
7
i
7
5
9
3
4
3
4
54 t
Very respectfully,
PRANK T. LINCOLN, M. D.,
City Physician, Eastern Division.
REPORT OP CITY PHYSICIAN.
WESTERN DIVISION.
SAVANNAH, GA., January 2, 1882.
HON. JOHN P. WHEATON, Mayor:
DEAR SIR1 have the honor to submit the following report as City Physician of the Western Division,
from January 1, 1881, to December 31, 1881:
' i M Deaths.
MONTHS.
March. .........
May ...........
July. . .........
Total. ..........
u
i
oft- J
1 293 297 Q
- - 330
. . 301
330
. . 466
456
323
. . 4283!
JS
136
122
119
123
157
194
261
144
1871
Colored
r
161
218
203
272
179
2412
d
Z
534
484
33*T
536
_ .Q
535
687
724
889
824
482
501
7298
"
i
3
ii
u
2
3
7
5
3
6
3
5
3
43
Respectfully,
T. B. CHISHOLM, M. D.,
City Physician, Western Division.
REPORT OF KEEPER LAUREL GROVE CEMETERY.
OFFICE KEEPER LAUREL GKOVE CEMETERY.
SAVANNAH, GA., January 2, 1882.
HON. J. P. WHEATON, Mayor:
SIRI have the honor to report Laurel Grove Cemetery in its usual good order and condition. The storm
of August 27th, 1881, caused considerable damage,
uprooting large trees and blowing dowu a large portion of the fencing. The prompt action of the city authorities in repairing damages, places the cemetery in
its former good order.
During the past year there has been received
For sale of burial lots. .........................$ 731 00
For burial fees................................ 726 25
Total................................... .$1,457 25
Amount Paid for Labor, Lumber, Material, etc.... 5,433 76
Number of interments at expense of the city:
Whites, from the city ............................ 17
Whites, from Savannah Hospital..................28 45
Colored, from the city ........................... 85
Colored, from Colored Infirmary .................. 67152
Total ..........................................197
The number of interments during the past year are
as follows:
MORTUARY.
NUMBER OF INTERMENTS IN LAUREL GROVE CEMETERY FROM JANUARY 1
TO DECEMBER 31, 1881.
WHITES. COLORED.
MONTHS.
a v a 73 v a
u js ~ u J2
6 O H 5 6 H
Januar)-. ............. 30
February .............' 13
March .............. 15
April ..............'17
May ............ ...! 23
June ........ .......I 21
July ............... I 23
August .............. i 19
September ............ 4
October.
November
December.
36
24
25
6 36 57 16 73
4 17 52 8 60
7 22 71 12 83
7 24 47 16 63
9 32 57 12 69
8 29 79 14 93
7 30 62 | 20 82
8 27 53 | 23 76
14 18 50 | 25 75
10 46 71 l 19 90
8 32 68
10 35 63
Total. ......... . . . 250 98 348 730 207 937 1,285
23 91
19 82
109
77
IO5
87
101
122
112
103
93
136
123
117
I have the honor to be,
Very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
A. F. TOBLAY,
Keeper Laurel Grove Cemetery.
REPORT OF KEEPER CITY DISPENSARY.
SAVANNAH, January 1, 1882.
HON. JOHN F. WIIKATON, Mayor:
SIRI have the h.onor to submit this, the following
report of the City Dispensary for the year ending
December 31, 1881:
May . . .
July . . .
October. .
Total .
'
MONTHS. |
I
............... 1,282
............... i, 600
............... 1,669
............... r 382
............... 1,577
............... 1,458
............... 1,304
............... 1,823
............... 1,674
............... 1,570
............... 1,345
................ 17.776
1
492
720
613
582
814
636
576
756
780
777
8,011'
Colored
.1
600
658
880
1,056
800
763
822
728
1,067
894
793
704
9.765!
Prescriptions
1,964
i 084
2,352
2,383
2,112
2,347
1,981
2,741
2,596
2,351
2,054
27,125
Respectfully,
. LEWIS CASS,
Keeper City Dispensary.
HARBOR MASTER'S REPORT,
HARBOR MASTER'S OFFICE,
SAVANNAH, GTA., January 1, 1882.
HON. JOHN F. WHEATON,
Mayor of the City of Savannah:
DEAR SIRI have the honor to report that I have
deposited with City Treasurer the sum of eleven thousand three hundred and sixty-one dollars and fortyfive cents *($! 1,361.45), amount of harbor fees collected
for the past year Nine hundred and twenty-two
dollars and forty-five cents ($922.45) in excess of 1880.
The amount of tonnage is seven hundred and ninetythree thousand and twenty-five tons (793,025). Seventyeight thousand two hundred and fifty-one tons in excess of 1880.
Annexed please find a tabulated monthly statement
of tonnage and fees..
I am respectfully
Your obedient servant,
JNO. D. TENBROECK,
Harbor Master.
DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN TONNAGE, 1881.
I
MONTHS.
1881.
January . .
February. . March . . .
April. . . .
June. , . .
July. . . .
August. . .
September. .
October . .
November .
December .
Total. . . ;
B
1
<u
<
58,102
47,995
57,298 j
48,097
44.596
39,887
44.377
54,106
43.170 59.856 ;
72.357
64,180 :
634,021 j
4"5
a
5,7i
15,2"
2,290
1,821
1,388
i, 660
316
6,889
12,341
18,673
7,965
8,871
82,496
a
!t
3. (<
6,136
5,848
4,246
3,3t4
4,798
405
850
1,127
296
3,807
5,493
5,494
41,814
"u>
<n
2,267
3,948
1,501
. . .
759
494
232
2,438
2,595
4,391,
1,229
19,854 3
o t;
% 0
370 612
. . . .
648 . .
336 . .
399
399
i
848 505
,000 1,117
8 8
1 g
H6 O
487 430
. . 1,270
1,493

'. . 479
i
. . 330
. . 1,001
. . 941
754 1,193
1,241 8,348
i '
jj ^
sex
so. S

, . , ,
i * *
... , .
. . 238
238 195 . .
419 . .
614 476

, ,
, .
( t
Tonnage
1881.
72,493 1
75,254
66,828 ;
53,88o
42,446 :
46,111
63,089
59,883
. 86,337
44 83,537 1
44 793,035 j!
Fees
1881.
$1,116 60
1,275 95
915 35
777 50
788 45
5H 75
530 10
753 05
803 30
1,303 25
1,358 65
1,234 50
!u"; 361 45
>
<
o ?:_
a?
>
*
V.
c >(-1
f> m"8
o
3
SAVANNAH, GA., December 31, 1881.
JOHN D. TENBBOECK,
Harbor Master.
REPORT OP QUARANTINE OFFICER.
QUARANTINE STATION, January 16th, 1882.
HON. J. F. WHEATON, Mayor:
DEAR SIRAs all nay books and papers were destroyed by the cyclone of 27th August, 1881, my report can only include what has taken place since that
time, except in general terms. That event has been so
enlarged upon and is so familiar now to all interested
in this locality, that I deem it superfluous to more
than allude to it here.
We have again to report a year passed without a
single casualty involving life; two men fell from the
decks into the holds of their respective vessels, neither
resulting in more than a temporary injury, to the
scalp in the one case and to the spine in the other.
The number of vessels visited since the storm is one
hundred and forty-five (145) in all, thirty (30) of which
have been fumigated, etc.
Some apprehension was felt by the pilots, and others
immediately interested in the movement of vessels in
our port, that much delay would be caused by our
enforced residence on Tybee, but I believe less delay
has occurred than from the Red Light Knoll, as I have
visited the larger number of the vessels in the roads,
thus avoiding all delay.
Tour Obedient,
J. A. HUGER, M. D.,
Quarantine Officer.
BAROMETER.
'. MEAN OF
TELEGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS.
I- ui
c . . . - -.- - .___....._._ .
g Corrected for temper- Corrected for temperao ature, instrumental ture and instrumental
error, and^elevation. error only.
O z
1 Mid- ' . Mid- &
jj A. M. P. M. nigh, A. M. P. M. nigh,
. 30 170 30.196 30.140 30.167 30.099 30.045 30.071 30.588
. 30.165 SO.IgO 3O.I35 3O.I7I 30.094 30.041 30.076 30.509
. 29.926 29.958 29. 88* 29.935 29.863 29.790 29.842 30.363
. 30.030 30.052 29.996 30.043 29.958 29.905 29.950 30.285
RANGE.
Q>
i i
j 5
29.605 .938
29.736 .773
29.615 .748
29.583 -702
. 30.036 30.058 30.015 30.035 29.967 29.925 29.944 30.308 29.706 .602
. 29.975 30.003 29.947 29.977 29.913 29.860 29.887 30.151 29.674 -477
. . ~ . 30.024 29.983 30.010 29.930 29.896 29.920. 30.187 29.786 .401
. . -5 . 30.016 29.985 30.001 29.926 29.895 29.911 30.217 29.170,1.047
'- - 30.085 30.049 30.089 29.995 29.959 29 991 30.271 20. , 841 .426
. . o . 30.166 30.127 30.152 30.076 30.037 ' 30.062 30.410 29.814 .596
. . " . 30.212 30.168 30.203 30.122 30.078 30.113 30.568 29.722 .846
. . C - 30.217 30.170 30.208 30.117 30.070 30.108 30.586 29.752 .834
is. . . . . 30.098 30.050 30.082 30.005 39.958 29.990' 30.370 29.667 .703
i ;
THERMOMETER.
MEAN OF
TELEGRAPHIC
<n
.2 OBSERVATIONS.
<3
ifl
A. M. P. M.
J '
48.5 43-8 53.3
53.8 48.1 60. i
56.7 50. 63.5
63.3 59. 69.7
74.2 70.8 79.9
82.6 78-9 85.5
a 81.5 90.2
g 77-4 85.
= 76.3 85-
o 68.5 77.6
in 56.2 67.6
3 51-7 63.1
-

s
48.0
52.2
55-5
61.4
71-9
79-8
RANGE.
1 . 1
S , E
S &
70- 32.
73- 29.
76. 36-
86. 33-
93-5 57-5
99- , 66.
82.4 101.5 71-
7<>.5 96 -5 66.
78.6 92. , 67.
71.1 86. 53.
60.4 80.5 28.5
55-7 77- 33-

O
g
o
38.
44-
1!
" c
a)
tlf=
X 2
u _o
!
S
75-8
5 a.'
bfi ,0
.5 o
s i
1 S o
! ft. 2
N 1,355
63.0' N E 1,950
40. 56.6 W 2,399
33- ;I62.4 S W 2.142
36. j [69.5 E 2,039
33- :|63.2 S W 1,763
OQ C a S . -a .
30.5 5 E . = .
-II E .-= .
33- : N E .
52. % N E&N W . % .
44. ; 5 i N '. 5 .
ii
' - 63.5 73.7 66-3 85.9 47.7 36.6:' .. i ...... ...
_ . -_ _ *.. - WIND.
NUMBER OF MILES. c
^
bo "E
o
t&
o
ft."
,235
,465
,553
,394
,IOO ,271
3
. g.
0
. 5 .
M
Ji < : C o
0 2 0 Z
** o
a *
c
a ^
S ; o
1,113' 1,364 1,330 1,725
1,745 2,046
2,260 1,599
797 1,447
948 1,261
a ts
' % ' ' 2 '
. : : .
.5.1.5.
:!
'c

t>
E
. 3
Is '**
H ;s
ui
.
"'I
H
e"S
(S"
_

c
o
E
5,067 22 | 5-77
6,770] 38 M x.i6
7,743 32
6,395 ; 33
5,383 26
5,243 29
5,473 23
5,608 80
5,763 27
4,937 22
5,860 29
... ...'... .....
3-79
3-32
0.83
0.91
1.22
9.63
3-09
2.72
2.45
3-o8i
39-97
o
B
PA
'g
c
o
to
Q
*- ^
fal
u a
iS3U3
2
14
9l
6
ii"i 14!
12
IO
IO
132
II
Dense fogs. Cold weather.
Low temperature. Succession of high winds latter part of month. Vegetable crops damaged.
. Long succession of cloudy days and precipitation.
. Deficiency in rainfall. Hazy and pleasant.
. Frosts 7tii, 23d, 27th, 28th. Mean barometer below average.
. Vegetable crops in suburbs partially damaged by cold of 2d.
. Deficiency in rainfall. Vegetable crops damaged by drought.
. Deficiency in rainfall. Vegetable crops damaged by drought. Numerous thunder storm.s latter part of month.
. Deficiency in rainfall. Hot. sultry weather. Frequent thunder storms.
. Terrific cyclone night of 27th. 70 to 80 miles .per hour from N. E. Trees blown down, houses unroofed, rice crop damaged. Number lives" lost by drowning.
. Mean temperature above average. Long continued easterly winds
, Brisk north-east winds. >
. Dense fogs. Frost 26th and 27th.
, Westerly gale on 2qth. '____
iosSAVANNAH, GA.
H. W. FORD,
Sergeant Signal Corps, U. S. A.
I
SAVAPAH RIVER IMPROVEMENTS.
MEMORANDUM OF WORK DONE DURING
THE YEAR AT SAVANNAH.
Owing to the failure of the contractors for the
Government work, no great progress has been made
the improvement of our river and harbor. During
he summer it was decided that the Government should
io the work by its own Agents and thus insure its
rapid progress and. early completion. At the same
time, farther consideration of the plans led to the
adoption of measures that may be counted upon to
produce decided effects for the benefit of your commercial interests through the increased* facilities for
their development.
The plans, above referred to, will be in full course
by early summer, when, with a new^and powerful
dredging outfit and the proper plants for the construction of works of maintenance, the immediate, thorough
and permanent improvement of our river and harbor
will be seen.
BENJ. D. GREENE,
Captain Engineers.
9
OUR RIVER AND HARBOR,
GEN. Q. A. GILMORE'S REPORT TO SECRETARY OP WAR LINCOLN.
Secretary of War Lincoln has transmitted to .Congress the report of Gen Q. A. Gilmore, made upon a
survey in compliance with the requirements of the last
river and harbor bill, for the further improvements
necessary in the Savannah River and harbor, and to
increase the depth of water to twenty-two feet from
the bar up to the city, and also for widening the
channel of the Savannah River opposite the city to six
hundred feet of uniform depth with the balance of the
channel. The report is as follows :
GENERAL :Section 3 of the River and Harbor Act,
approved March 3, 1881, provides that an examination or survey, or both, with estimates of cost of improvements proper, should be made in the Savannah
River and harbor to increase the depth of the water in
said river and harbor from the bar up to the city to
22 feet, and to make an estimate of the cost of widening the channel of the Savannah River, opposite the
city, to 600 feet, of uniform depth with the balance of
the channel.
This work was assigned to my charge by department letter dated March 21, 1881, and I have the honor
to submit the following report thereon :
Such examinations as were considered to be sufficient for the purpose in view were, under my direction, made by my assistant, Captain B. B. Greene,
Corps of Engineers, and Mi-. S. L. Fremont, Assistant
Engineer.
MAYOK*8 -ANNUAL BEJPOKT. 131
Daring the last year operations for improving Savannah River and harbor were carried on in conformity
to the general plan submitted August 28, 1873, and to
the supplementary project of March 19, 1879.
The leading object was to establish a navigable
channel from Tybee Roads to the city of Savannah,
practicable at high tide for vessels drawing twentytwo feet of water.
The original plan embraced the construction of a
submerged dam at the Cross-Tides, widening the'water
way at the city front, and deepening, widening and
straightening the channel by dredging at various
points below the city. The cost of these works was
estimated at $481,320.
The supplementary project of March 19, 1879, had
for its main object the improvement of the North
Channel in preference to the South Channel, from the
head of Elba Island to the head of Long Island. The
new features introduced in this design consisted in the
construction of a low dam across the upper end of the
South Channel, in closing by dams the lateral channels now connecting the North and South Channels,
from Elba Island to Cockspur Island, and in providing for shore protection at some points. It was proposed also to enlarge the ship channel by dredging to
a minimum depth of 14 or 16 feet, and a width of 126
feet at mean low water, on all shoals between the city
and Tybee Roads, a design which essentially was em-,
braced in the former project.
In both projects it was indicated that other works
would be needed, chiefly for the reason that the river
is excessively wide at various places below the city,
and must be contracted by suitable works to secure
the preservation of the deepened channel, but no estimates for works of channel contraction were submitted.
In the present report it is proposed to point out the
places where the water-way should be contracted ; the
works to be constructed for that purpose, and other
132 MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
operations to be carried out in order to secure the end
in view and not embraced in previous projects, with an
estimate of their probable cost. Separate reports of
the examination, with general estimates of cost, have
been received by me from Captain Greene and Mr.
Premont, and will first be referred to. '
Captain Greene is oi the opinion that to secure and
maintain a deep channel down to Tybee Roads will
require the contraction of the water-way the entire
distance by means of wing-dams and training walls
suitably distributed. His plan is essentially as follows : The width of the river between the limiting
lines marked by the heads of the confining works
should be gradually increased from the city of Savannah downwards. At the lower part of the city it
would be 650 feet; below the head of Elba Island
from 1,000 to 1,200 feet; near Tybee Roads from 1,500
to 2,000 feet.
Captain Greene assumes that the desired end consists in securing and preserving a mean low water
depth of 17 feet in the navigable channel from Tybee
Roads to the city.
The following works, or sets of works, he thinks,
should be constructed for the purpose in addition to
those already sanctioned:
1. Raising the dam at Cross-Tides four or six feet
above the level of low water.
2. A. training wall at the eastern end of Hutchinson's Island, extending eastward about a mile, with
three spurs projecting from its north side and three
from its south side, the heads of the latter to define
the north edge of the new channel at "the Wrecks."
Aggregate length about 9,300 feet, of which 4,300 feet
is for spurs.
3 A system of wing-dams, eight in number, to contract the channel and define its northern margin from
the lower end of Back River to near the head of Elba
MAYOR'S ANNUAL feEtOBf. 133
Island ; with a closure dam on either side of Barnwell Island, giving an aggregate length of works of
about 7,400 feet, of which a length of 6,200 feet would
be occupied by spurs.
4 A dam closing channel between Elba and Spirit
Islands. Length about 700 feet. The channel is also
named Duck Puddle.
5. A system of wing-dams defining the northern and
southern limits of the ship channel from the head of
Elba Island to the lower end of Long Island. The set
embraces six spurs on the north side and seven on the
south side of an approximate aggregate length of 16,-
900 feet
6. A system of training walls and spurs from Cockspur Island to Tybee Roads. The principal features
are a long spur jetty extending south from Turtle
Island towards Red Light on Oyster bed Shoal, and a
long training wall with spurs on the north side of St.
' Michael's Channel, which extends from Tybee Knoll
to Tybee Roads. Aggregate length of works 28,000
feet, approximately.
7. A dam across the South Channel, about half a
mile below the entrance of Saint Augustine creek, and
a low closure dam across that creek near its mouth.
Aggregate length about 1,800 feet.
8. Three spur jetties on the northeast shore of Tybee
Island, aggregating about 5,400 feet in length.
9 Shore protections. Captain Green indicates four
places where the shores of the North Channel should
be protected to any' considerable length, viz.:
a. South Carolina shore, opposite Spirit Island.. .4,300 feet.
b. North shore of Elba Island, near its lower end.. 1,200 feet.
v Jones Island, at and above Venus Point ... .. .4,000 feet.
d. Northeast shore of Long Island, central portion .5,000 feet.
Total length, approximately............. 14,500 feet.
134 MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
The total length of these various works would be
84,000 lineal feet, approximately, to wit.:
Training walls (Hutchiuson's lalaud and Tybee
Knoll)................................... .20,000 feet.
Spur jetties, except at Tybee Island............ 40,400 feet.
Spur jetties at Tybee Island................... 5,400 feet.
Shore protections, as enumerated.............. 14,500 feet.
Closure dams (Duck Puddle, South Channel, St.
Augustine creek).......................... 3,700 feet.
Total ........... ....................84,000 feet.
As to the height of the wing-dams, Captain Greene
recommends their heads to be three feet high above
low water, and their shore ends up to level of high
water. The heads to be of T shape, and the banks
near the roots of the spur protected. He says nothing
about the height of the closure dams embraced in his
plan, but thinks that the dams closing the lateral
channels below Elba Island, previously approved,
should be raised to the level of high water, with the
possible exception of the dam at Philbrick's Cut, at
the lower end of Elba Island.
Dredging would be done in the vicinity of the dams
where necessary, 'and the matreial dumped behind
them. He deems it of the greatest importance that
government should purchase and own a suitable
dredge for tliaX purpose.
The materials of which the works are chiefly to be
constructed to be logs, brash and stone, in the most
economical proportions, employing stone as sparingly
as consistent with safety.
As the best method for performing the work, he suggests buying material in market and putting it in by
hired labor.
The total cost of all the works described or designed
by Captain Greene is estimated by him at $600,000, or
near that sum. The sum to be paid for land damages
on Hutchinson's Island, opposite the city, is not in-
ANNUAL RBPOR*. 135
eluded in the estimate. He thinks it quite possible
that the works will not at once be required of the
height indicated by him, but that in time they will be.
The purchase of plant for carrying on the works of
construction is estimated at $20,000 ; the purchase of
dredge, tug, dump-boats, etc., at $36,000.
Mr Fremont thinks that the water-vay of the North
Channel, from below Spirit Island to below Venus
Point, should be continued at about the same width
that now exists between Spirit Island and the north
shore, or about 1,000 feet, the contraction to be effected by low dams, perpendicular or parallel to the
direction of the current from or along both shores. If
spurs are used, he recommends a maximum interval
between them of 800 feet, which, if needed, may be
reduced by supplementary works.
North of Cockspur Island he recommends the construction of two training walls. One of them would
extend from the Horseshoe Shoal to the Red Light
Beacon on Oyster-bed Shoal; the other along the north
side of St. Michael's Channel.
The cost ot all these works, supposed to include
some dredging, ig estimated by him at $360,000.
A jetty or training wall at the lower end of Fig
Island, extending in an easterly direction, forms part
of his plan, and he proposes to connect its eastern end
by a low dam with Barn well Island. Probable coat
estimated at $35,000, including deepening of the new
channel at "the Wrecks" to a mean low water depth
of 17 feet
Mr. Fremont estimates that nearly 800,000 cubic
yards of material (including 20 per cent, extra for
errors in calculation) must be removed from the Savannah River in front of the city to establish an uniform width of 600 feet, and sufficient depth to enable
vessels to be moved from wharf to wharf at any stage
of tide. The cost of removing this material is estimated at $95,000. At the time when Mr. Fremont
136 MAYOR'S AHXOAL RKPORT.
made this report, the commissioners appointed to render an award for land damages at Hutchinson's Island
had not yet come to a decision. As a preliminary estimate, he assumes the probable cost to be $100,000.
The dam at the cross-tides is not specially referred
to in the report, but the sum of $10,000 is named in
the general estimate to be used for the purpose of
raising the dam properly.
The estimated aggregate cost of all the improvements,
summarily pointed out in Mr. Fremont's report, is
therefore $590,000, including land damages.
Mr. Fremont briefly refers to the fact that the main
current of the North Channel suddenly leaves the concave shore near the lower end of Elba Island and passes
over to Venus Point, whence it is deflected southward
to Long Island, to cross again to the north, impinging
upon Oyster-bed Shoal opposite Cockspnr Island, di
viding there into two channels.
He concludes that under the influence of the prevailing northeasterly winds the line of deep water
would generally be on the southerly side of the North
Channel, but that it is deflected and driven northward
by the strong ebb currents from the lateral channels
below Elba Island. He is inclined to think if these
channels were closed (an operation -already decided
upon and now in progress) that the natural course of
the main channel would be along the southern shore
from the lower end of Spirit Island to near Cockspur
Island.
It is seen that Captain Greene and Mr. Fremont substantially agree in regard to the means thought to be
necessary for the further improvement of the Savannah River and harbor. Both consider it necessary
to raise the dam at the cross-tides much higher than it
now is, to contract the water-way of the North Channel below Spirit Island, and to protect St Michael's
channel below Tybee knoll by a training wall. They
differ in regard to the treatment of the reach of the
MAYOR'S AKKUAL RXPOBT. 131?
river from below the Fig Island jetty, recently ap
proved by the Chief of Engineers and now in course
of construction to the head of Elba Island. Captain
Greene proposes to guide the navigable channel on its
north side by a series of spurs, while Mr. Fremont
would throw a low dam across the lower entrance of
Back River. It is to be regretted that the dams intended to close the side channel below Elba Island
have not yet been constructed, owing to the utter failure of the contractor to accomplish anything. His
contract was annulled on May 19, 1881, and the preparations for doing the work by hired labor, with material bought in open market, and for procuring the
requisite plant, consumed so much -time that actual
operations could not be commenced until recently. If
these dams had been finished, and the submerged dam
across the South Channel at the head of Elba Island
been raised somewhat higher, the observed effects of
these 'works would have furnished valuable information in regard to the question of what may be needed
for a further and permanent improvement of the lower
Savannah River.
There can be no doubt, however, that the water-way
of the North Channel should be contracted where it
evidently is too wide, and the real question is the number and extent of the works to be constructed, the
sites for which are indicated in a general way by the
river itself.
A radical solution of the problem would consist in
confining the river between training walls or bulkheads all the way down to Tybee Roads, increasing
the space between them in approaching the lower end.
This was the latest form according to which the River,
Clyde was improved ; and the River Maas, from above
Rotterdam to its outlet into the North Sea, was similarly treated. By such an arrangement the currents
of the ebb and flood tide would be compelled to follow the same channel, and the result would be the
138 MAYOR'S ANNtfAt
maintenance of a navigable water-way of ample depth.
The expense would be very great, however, even if the
training walls were carried up to the level of half tide
only, as in the case of the river Maas, and a further
discussion of such a project appears to be premature
at the present time.
A more economical method of improving the river
at those places where it is too wide and of insufficient
depth is offered by the employment of wing-dams or
spur jetties. By a proper disposition of such works
it is believed that, without excessive cost, a permanent
channel may be established of sufficient depth to enable vessels of 22 feet draught to pass from Tybee
Roads to the city on the flood tide, which is the maximum draught contemplated in the project previously
submitted for the improvement of this tidal stream.
No greater draught than this can be safely carried
over the Tybee bar except on the high water of spring
tides, and not even then unless the sea is more than
ordinarily calm.
It is well known that the first real improvement of
the River Clyde was obtained by means of a number
of rubble spurs, which were built by John Golborne
in the years from 1773 to 1775, and aided by dredging
on the hard shoals. Where, in 1769, only two feet
depth of water at' low tide had existed, these works
had, in 1775, created a channel of 300 feet width and
six feet ten inches depth, which, at the end of the next
six years, according to Mr. Golhome's statement, had
increased to twelve or fourteen feet, while the spaces
between many of the jetties had become filled up and
covered with grass. A great number of additional
jetties were built at the beginning of the present century, by the advice of John Rennie, who also recommended to connect the heads of the spurs by continuous low rubble walls, which is believed to be the first
instance of the adoption of the system of longitudinal
training walls.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 139
In regard to the question of the number and size of
the works needed for contracting the river, the following remarks are offered :
The channel-way of the Savannah River, like that of
most other rivers in their natural condition, presents a
succession of extended and comparatively deep pools,
separated by reaches of shoal water. It would seem
that the more economical plan of improvement will be
to construct works in the shoal sections of the river
designed to produce channels of adequate depth and
of sufficient length to connect the deep pools. It
is obvious that this method naturally leads to the preservation of the present line of channel, to which there
seems to be no special objection. It is true that the
channel is somewhat crooked, but the curves have large
radii, and, so far as known, have never been considered as an impediment to navigation. To attempt to
straighten the channel would throw some of the works
into the deepest water and render them more expensive. It may be said, also, that the causes which tend
to throw the main current of a river alternately from
one bank to the other are generally obscure, and it
seems advisable in the present case to accommodate
the works to the natural course of the main current,
where it is practicable, instead of attempting to change
it violently.
The deepest pool is found at the head of the North
Channel, between Spirit Island and the shore of South
Carolina. At the narrowest part, at low water, the
width is l,0f>5 feet, with a mean hydraulic radius of
20.4 feet, and maximum depths of from 35 to 40 feet
at mean low tide. The 18 loot curve or pocket commences at a point above Spirit Island and ends opposite the lower end of that island, its length being about
8,000 feet.
At the easterly end of Spirit Island the North Channel widens to 1,800 feet, with a hydraulic radius ol
12.76 feet at low water. The deep water channel of
140 MAYOR'S ANNUAL RBPOHT.
this profile is about 600 feet wide, with depths varying
from 16 to 17 feet This may be considered approximately, as a standard profile, representing a cross section of the river as it should be when improved as proposed.
- Passing below the confines of Spirit Island the river
rapidly widens; three-quarters of a mile below the
width is over 4,000 feet, with corresponding shallow
water. The low-water depth ot the navigable channel
in this vicinity is estimated at 12 feet, or a little over,
but on a very limited width.
From this point dowu the river gradually narrows,
and at the lower end of Elba Island another pool is
formed. The total width is here about 2,500 feet, and
in the deep water-way near the island low water depths
of 30 feet and upwards are found. The 18 foot pocket
extends about parallel to the island shore for a length
of about 3,600 feet.
The river then again widens, and at the mouth of
the .North Channel between the southeasterly point ofJones Island and the middle portion of Long Island,
the width is about 4,700 feet, with available low water
depths of from 13J to 15 feet channel way. The main
current passes from Elba Island across the river to the
north shore of Jones Island, where it forms a third
narrow pool, with depth varying from 18 to 26 feet for
a length of about a mile.
Along the shore of Long Island a good navigable
channel exists, the maintenance of which is probably
due to the slight concavity and comparative toughness
of the banks. The low-water depths reach up to 20
and 21 feet; bat these depths are lost near the lower
end of the island and beyond, in consequence of the
weakening of the.ebb currents by the rapid expansion
of the waters as they approach Tybee Roads.
The large shoal or island, partly bare even at high
water, north of Port Pulaski, known as Oyster-Bed
Shoal, divides the ship channel into two arms, of
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 141
which the southern one, since 1872, has been selected
for use and has been deepened by dredging. It was,
and, to some extent, is now, obstructed by shoals and
remnants* of wrecks, and needs further improvement.
The same is the case with the easterly continuation of
this channel, from Tybee Knoll to Tybee Roads,
known as St Michael's Channel, where vessels sometimes find trouble in passing.
The work of improviug the Savannah River and
harbor, so as to increase the depth of the water from
the bar up to the city to 22 feet, as provided for in the
act of March 3,1881, and which is interpreted to mean
a depth that will permit vessels drawing 22 feet to
reach the city on the flood-tide, requires not only the
construction of certain works in the North Channel,
but also higher up, as far as the Cross-Tides, four
miles above the city.
The various points where such additional works are
believed to be needed, with the probable cost of such
works, will now be briefly discussed, beginning at the
Cross-Tides.
c BOSS-TIDES.
The further improvement of the harbor of Savannah, and of that portion of the river immediately below the city, requires an increase of the flow of water
in that section. For that purpose the submerged dam
at Cross-Tides, recently constructed, must be raised,
as the strength of the currents across its low crest towards Back River, during ebb tide, shows that too
large a volume of water escapes in that direction and
is lost to the Front River.
It was stated in the last annual report that the crest
of the work then reached at several places up to the
level of low water, while at other points there was
from six to eight feet of water over it at low tide, and
that it might become advisable to raise the dam ultimately to the level of high water. In the latter event
no doubts are entertained that the work will have a
142 MAYOR'S ANNUAL RBPORT.
beneficial influence on the navigable channel in front
of and below the city, and the estimate of the cost of
farther improvement should therefore provide for that
contingency.
There is a question whether a gap should be left in
the dam for the passage of river craft. IE view of the
violent currents that are now frequently observed
here, it is doubtful whether boats could safely pass
through the gap when the crest of the dam on both
sides the opening shall have been raised to high water
mark, and the danger of undermining on the downriver side of the dam will be considerable if a channel
be left through it. In forming an estimate of the cost
of completing the work up to the level of ordinary
high water, it seems to be safer to assume that no gap
will be left.
Several hundred cubic yards of stone have been
placed on the dam since July 1. 1881, and with the
funds still on hand it is proposed to raise the work to
the height of several feet above low water.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE WATER-WAT BETWEEN CROSSTIDES AND THE CITY OF SAVANNAH.
This distance from the Cross-Tides to the upper part
of the city of Savannah is about three and a half
miles. Some dredging has been done here of late,
temporarily improving the channel near the Georgia
shore, but as the proposed raising of the dam at
the Cross-Tides progresses some additional dredging
should be done in this reach, with a view of more
rapidly gaining the depth which the increased flow of
water is to maintain. It is thought that the sum of
$20.000 may advantageously be expended for the
purpose.
ENLARGING THE WATER-WAY OPPOSITE THE CITY
FRONT AND AT FIG ISLAND.
This improvement requires the cutting away of a
strip of land on the Hutchinson's Island side, oppo-
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 143
>
site the city, and a considerable amount of dredging
along the city front on nearly the whole width of the
river. It is contemplated in the existing project of
improvement to widen the river to 600 feet, opposite
the upper portion of the city, gradually increasing the
width 650 feet near Pig Island, opposite the lower
front of the city, and to deepen it sufficiently to enable
vessels drawing as much as 22 feet of water to be
moved from wharf to wharf at any stage of tide.
The length of the strip of land to be cut off is nearly
2,300 feet, averaging 62 feet in width. The present
front of Hutchinson's Island is wharfed, except about
500 feet of its length. The land is held by sundry
parties, and is for the most part occupied by improvements, among which are a large saw mill with log
pond, a shipyard and marine railway, warehouses,
machine shop and oil works.
Negotiations for an appraisement and transfer to the
United States of the necessary area of land, amounting to 3.3 acres, were commenced about a year ago,
but have not yet been brought to a close.
It is understood, however, that the city agrees to
give, and the landholders agree to accept, an equal
area of land directly in rear of the land to be ceded.
The United States are expected to pay the expenses of
moving back or putting up again on the new sites the
several establishments now existing and of building
wharves along the new river front.
From information recently received it is thought that
the aggregate claim for damages will amount to about
$75,000.
Assistant Engineer S. L. Premont estimates that the
strip of land must be cut away to a depth of about
twenty feet. This would be equal to a volume of 106, -
000 cubi(\yards of material.
He further estimates that, in order to gain the desired depth of water along the city front on a length of
about 4,000 feet, about 630,000 cubic yards of material
must be removed.
144 MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT.
The aggregate amount of material to be removed by
excavating or dredging is, therefore, 636,000 cubic
yards, and the cost of its removal will be about $98,-
000- This is expected to give a low-water depth of
twenty-two feet on the city side of the river, s/> that
vessels can load to their full draught and move from
wharf to wharf at any stage of the tide without grounding, while the rest of the channel will have a depth of
only twenty-two feet at high water.
It is not to be expected that a deep pool or basin
thus artificially formed will maintain itself perfect by
the mere strength of the currents, apd occasional
dredging will be necessary after it has been established.
Another improvement may be mentioned here.
When the land on Hntchinson's Island shall have been
cut away, and the new front lined with wharves, it will
before long become desirable to extend the line of
bulkheads on that side to near the lower end of Fig
Island. The present excessive widths and irregularities of shore line opposite the city will then disappear,
the tide currents will be guided as if by regular training walls on both sidrs, and the maintenance of the increased depth of the harbor will be greatly facilitated
and rendered less expensive. As part of the general
plan of improvements, the immediate construction of
at least two wing-dams, reaching from the north shore
out nearly to the new bulkhead line, is deemed necessary, and has recently been recommended and approved. Perhaps a third one will also be required at
an early day. Beyond this and the dredging above
mentioned the General Government should not expend
any more money opposite the city front, as the completion of the bulkhead line on the north side will
doubtless be undertaken by private enterprise as soon
as additional wharfage facilities are needed on that
side of the stream. These three wing-dams will cost
about $25,000.
The cost of improving the river in front of the city
is therefore estimated at $198,000, viz :
MAYOR'S AKNCAL KEPOKT. 145
Amount of claims for damages.......... ........$ 75,000
Excavation and dredging............ ............ 98,000
Three wing-dams from Hutchinson's Island ....... 25,000
Total.......................... .......... .$198,000
NEW CHANNEL AT "THE WRECKS."
Experience having shown that the new channel at
"the Wrecks," running close to the south shore as
the river emerges from the confines of Pig Island, cannot sufficiently maintain the depths obtained by repeated dredging, it was considered expedient to begin
the construction of a work, the ultimate necessity of
which has been indicated in several preceding annual
reports, but had been temporarily held in abeyance.
The work referred to is a deflecting jetty, or training
wall, extending eastward from the lower end of Fig
Island. On my recommendation the design ior its construction was approved by department letter dated
November 4, 1881.
The jetty, if carried up to a height of 3 or 3 feet
above the level of low water, will keep together the
currents issuing from Front River during the latter
stages of the ebb tide, and may safely be expected to
exert a very beneficial influence on the preservation of
such depths as will be gained by dredging, and even
to deepen the channel by its own action, especially
when the dam at Cross-Tides shall have been built up
to the height suggested in this report.
The total length of the jetty, as now designed, is
6,200 feet It is built of log mattresses, overlaid with
brush and riprap stone. Above the low-water line the
latter material will be used liberally. The bottom
course is already laid for a length of 2,040 teet, and a
second course for a length of 290 feet, and the work
will soon be carried up to the height of two or three
feet above low-water mark on the entire length designed. If built up to the level of half-tide, except on
the lower end, for a length of about 200 feet, which
10
146 MAYOR'S AXTBTTAL BEPOBT.
may gradually drop down to a height of about three
feet above the bed of the river, to prevent troublesome
scour at that point, the cost of this work is estimated
at $30,000.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE WATER-WAT FROM THE, VICINITY OF FORT JACKSON TO THE HEAD OF THE NORTH
CHANNEL.
The distance from the lower end of the Fig Island
jetty, here referred to, to Fort Jackson, on the south
shore of the Savannah river, is about half a mile, and
from that place to the head of the North Channel two
miles.
Down to near the upper end of the South Channel,
one mile below the fort, the navigable channel passes
near the south shore, which is slightly concave, and
ample depths are found here, But on the reach
abreast the head of Elba Island, of about one mile in
length, part of which is known as "the Obstructions,"
the depths are much reduced below the standard desired. Through this reach the main channel passes
from the Georgia to the South Carolina shore. Occasional dredging has given here but temporary relief,
as is generally the case where an inflection of a river
is to be dealt with.
It is necessary to direct stronger currents over these
shallow places, and this can be effected by contracting
the water-way. The wing-dams proposed by Captain
Greene are well located for the purpose. It appears,
however, that only those numbered 15, 17, and 19 on
the chart sent with his report are immediately necessary, as they will act directly upon the portion of the
river to be improved. Possibly No. 13 might be included, as it will produce an extension of the deepwater pocket now ending opposite the head of the
South Channel into the defective reach; and also dams
Nos. 5 and 11 closing the channels, on the northwest
and southeast side of Barnwell Island.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 14?
The other spars above No; 13, to-wit: Nos. 3, 7, 9,
and 11, shown on the chart, are evidently designed to
concentrate the outgoing waters of Back River, and
guide its ebb currents at a favorable angle into the
main channel near Port Jackson. They would undoubtedly assist iq creating greater depths in the vicinity of "the Obstructions," but their construction
does not seem to be of very pressing need, and should
be postponed until demonstrated to be necessary.
In relation to this matter, the question may be raised
whether it will be more advantageous to effect, just
below the Pig Island jetty, by suitable works and at
a favorable angle, the junction of the ebb currents
from Back River and Front River, or to promote the
entrance of the flood tide into Front River, and slightly
obstruct its flow into Back River, through extending
the Fig Island jetty by a sill-dam in an easterly direction to the low islands opposite Fort Jackson. A low
dam arranged as here suggested, though only about
three feet high above the bottom of the river, would
tend to guide the flood-tide currents into Front River,
and would, in a measure, act as a submerged training
wall for the waters flowing out during ebb-tide. Such
a sill-dam would have a length of about 3,500 feet,
and with a base of 30 feet width would cost about
$25,000. The works proposed by Captain Ghreene,
comprising Nos. 3, 7, 9 and 11, and three spurs on the
north side of the Fig Island jetty, would have an aggregate length of about 4,600 feet, and will probably
cost, approximately, $40,000.
It is thought sufficient to include in the new project
the two closure dams at Barnwell Island, and those
wing-dams that are undoubtedly required to improve
the ship channel at the "Obstructions" and vicinity.
They will be four in number, by including No. 13, of
an aggregate length of about 3,000 feet As a general
rule, the height of the shore ends of these spurs may
be about 7 feet above mean low water for a length of
148 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BBKET.
100 feet For the following 200 feet of length the crest
may gradually drop to a, height of 3 feet above low
water level, from which point it may run out at a
gentle slope to the head of the work next to the channel, where it may not be higher than 3 feet above the
bed of the river. This will prevent the formation of
deep holes caused by eddying currents at the head,
and the deepening effects of the spur will be more
evenly distributed over the width of the channel. In
all cases the head is recommended to be in the shape
of a T. to form a low training wall of from 300 to 500
feet in length, to extend the effect of the spur some
distance above and below. It will also obstruct the
currents that are generally found to run along the
sides of wing-dams towards the channel, and will,
moreover, in some measure, prevent the sediment
which is dropped at intervals between the spurs from
being washed into the channel.
The elevation of the crown above the bed at the
different points of the wing-dam may, of course, vary
from the rule here suggested, but it is believed that
with a longitudinal profile approximately like that
described, the desired effects will be realized, and the
estimates have been made on that basis. As to the
mode of construction, it is assumed that the crown
will be uniformly 4 feet wide, with slopes of 1 to 1 on
each side. All that portion of the dam from 1 to 2
feet above mean low water is presumed to be of riprap stone; below, alternate courses of log or brush
mattresses and stone, the latter used as sparingly as
practicable. The bottom mattress is supposed to project about 5 feet beyond the foot of the slope on each
side of the dam.
At present prices it is estimated that the four wingdams designed for the improvement of the channel
abreast of the head of Elba Island, together with the
Barnwell Island dams, will cost, approximately, $46,-
000.
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 149
DAM AT THE HEAD OF SOUTH CHANNEL.
This work forms a part of the supplementary project of March 19, 1879. It was designed to increase
the volume of ebb flow in the,north channel, and was
intended to be a submerged dam, keeping a portion of
it, for a width of 200 feet, at least 10 feet below mean
. low water for the accommodation of vessels of moderate draught bound in or out of St. Augustine Creek,
which forms part of the inland passage to Florida.
Operations were commenced here some time ago, and
at the end of the past fiscal year an apron, or bottom
course of mattresses of 24 feet width and 18 inches in
average thickness, overlaid with some riprap stone,
had been laid from the line of high water on one bank,
across the river, to the corresponding line on the other
bank. A second and third course of narrow mattresses cover portions of the apron.
The original width of the transverse profile of the
South Channel at the site of the dam was 1,000 feet at
mean low water and 1,460 feet at high water, with an
average low water depth of 13.3 feet and a maximum
depth of 20.5 feet. The works thus far executed have
reduced these dimensions somewhat. The widths of
the river, at low water and high water, are now 960
and 1,060 feet respectively; the average low water
depths is 10.4 feet and the maximum depth is 18.5
feet. The area of cross section has been reduced from
13,330 square feet to 9,950 at low water, and from 21,-
150 square feet to 17,070 at high water.
It appears necessary to raise the dam higher to produce appreciable effects. It is proposed to reduce the
average low water depth to about five feet, and perhaps still more, leaving a gap as originally designed.
An estimate of the probable cost of this work is
given in the project of March 19, 1879, and is judged
to be ample even if the dam is raised higher as above
indicated.
150 MATCH'S AKNUAL REPOKT.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE WATER-WAY OF THE NORTH
CHANNEL FROM THE HEAD OF ELBA ISLAND TO
THE LOWER END OF JONES ISLAND.
The length of the present ship channel in the several
reaches embraced in this section of the river is about
64 statute miles. Three comparatively deep pools,
with low-water depths from 17 feet upwards, are found
here, of an aggregate length of about three miles.
The upper and lower pools are located on the north or
South Carolina shore of the river; the middle one on
the south shore near the lower part of Elba Island.
The shoal reaches occupy the places technically known
as inflections, where the principal current passes from
one bank to the opposite one, and these are the places
that must be improved by suitable works.
The solution of the problem consists in concentrating the scattered currents upon the line adopted for
the ship channel, to produce greater depths by the
scouring action of stronger bottom currents, aided by
dredging where the bed is refractory.
It is proposed to effect this concentration of currents
in the shallow reaches by means of spurs or wing-dams
projected into the river from both banks, leaving ample width between the heads of each set or pair, of
spurs for a low-water channel. A few jetties will be
required for each shallow reach, generally in pairs,
although there will be points where one jetty will suffice, with some works for protecting the opposite shore
from abrasion. Each wing-dam should be provided
at its head with a low training wall, about five hundred feet long, parallel to the channel-way.
When two adjoining spurs are too far apart, it is
proposed to mark the margin of the deep water-way
by a detached length of training wall, with a short
spur in rear, not connected with the shore. To promote the deposit of sediment, light traverses may be
built at suitable places.
MAYOJl'8 ANNUAL BEPORT. 151
In all cases the heads of jetties should be kept very
low, and the crown should rise at a very gentle slope
towards the high shore ends, as already described.
It is expected that, between the heads of every pair
of wing-dams, the bed will be deepened by scour to a
greater depth than required, forming in fact secondary
pools, overlapping the heads of these works for some
distance in the direction of the channel, while gradually diminishing in depth. It is not thought to be
necessary that the ends of these pools, where they are
reduced to the desired minimum low-water depth of
about 17 feet, should actually or at once join the ends
of similar depth of the large or primary pools already
existing, by the direct action of the wing-dams alone.
The work of joining the secondary pools with the primary ones may be left to the river itself by gradually,
more or less, filling up the intervals between the spurs,
and thus reducing the area of the water-way above
and below them.
The location of the wing-dams designed for the improvement of the North Channel, shown on the chart
sent with Captain Greene's report, are considered to
be approximate only, and subject to modification ; but
they furnish a general idea of what is required. It is
thought that the desired end can be obtained without
giving the works in each case the full length indicated
on the chart.
As an illustration of the probable effects of the wingdams if constructed as suggested, the spurs numbered
six and twenty-five, which appear to be judiciously
located about 800 yards below Spirit Island, will be
briefly considered. It is not the intention, however,
to present a lengthy discussion of the theories bearing
upon this subject.
When the North Channel was ganged some years
ago, the average discharge during the ebb-tide, in the
principal water-way between Spirit Island and the
north shore, was found to be 43,800 cubic feet per sec-
152 MAYOR'S AMU UAL REPORT.
ond; in the shallow channel strath of Spirit Island,
3,370 cubic feet. The aggregate ebb volume that passes
through the transverse profile where the two wingdams spoken of are to be built, may, therefore, be
estimated at 46,170 cubic feet per second.
An examination of detailed charts has furnished the
following data for this profile:
Area of Hydraulic
Water-way Width. Radius.
At low tide....... 26,079 sq. ft, 3,642 ft. 7.16 ft.
At half tide....... 37,990 sq. ft. 3.687 ft. 10.18 ft.
By examining the most recent detailed charts of the
North Channel it is found that at the ends of the existing pools the points of 16J or 17 feet depth are quite
uniformly from 800 to 1,000 feet from the 21-foot curves
of the pools.
It may be expected that the wing-dams will briug
about similar results, and that they will create sufficient depths for as great a distance above and below
them. The low training walls at the heads are designed not only as guides to the current, but also to
push out still further the deep pockets artificially
formed. The gradual accumulation of deposited material, and the building out of the old shore lines between the wing-dams, will, it is hoped, finish the work.
It must also be borne in mind that every inch permanently gained in depth will augment the volume of
the flood-tide ascending the river, and will produce
stronger ebb currents.
The closing of the lateral channels below Elba
Island by high dams will soon be under way. The
irregularities produced in the North Channel by these
secondary water-ways will then cease, and the cost of
the works proposed in the present project will probably be reduced thereby, although it would be neither
practicable nor safe to attempt to form an estimate of
the saving that may be effected.
In making an estimate of the probable cost of improving, in the manner described, the North Channel
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 153
from the head of Elba Island to the lower end of Jones
Island, it has been assumed that on the north side
eight wing-dams of an aggregate length of about 8,000
feet, with low training walls at their heads, aggregating 3,400 feet in length, will be constructed; also a
detached piece of training wall of 600 feet length opposite the central portion of Elba Island. On the south
side six spurs are assumed to be built of a total length
of 7,000 feet, with about 1,700 feet of training wall.
The total cost of these works is estimated at $160,000.
The longest of the wing-dams would be located at the
southeast point of Jones Island ; it will extend about
1,750 feet in a southerly direction toward Long Island,
and from its head will spring a training wall extending eastward, and to be mentioned further on.
IMPROVEMENT OF SAVANNAH RIVER FROM THE LOWBB
END OF JONES ISLAND TO TYBEE ROADS.
No work has yet been done for improving this section of the river beyond the opening of a new channel
through the shoal northeast of Fort Pulaski by dredging and the removal of wrecks and dredging on Oysterbed shoal, north of Cockspur Island. It is necessary
to cause a larger volume of water to flow through this
passage. The eastern continuation of this channel
that leads into Tybee Roads, known as St. Michael's
channel, is also subject to shoaling from sand driven
in on the north side by the currents from Calibogne
Sound and by breaking waves rolled in by northeasterly gales.
The probability that the discharge into Tybee Roads
will have to be controlled or directed in some degree
by suitable works, was recognized in the supplementary project of March 19, 1879, but no estimate of the
cost ot such works was therein submitted. It was
said that a simple sill jetty or low training wall rising
from 3 to 4 feet from the bottom, and running from a
point at or near the lower end of Jones Island to the
154 MAYORS JLHITUAL EXPORT.
Oyster-Bed Beacon (red light), and perhaps a short
distance beyond, would doubtless suffice.
Such a work seems to be rather preferable to the
long jetty suggested by Captain Greene to be run
from Turtle Island to Oyster-Bed Shoal, and marked
No. 37 on the accompanying chart, which is apparently designed to prevent, in a measure, the waters of
the estuary between Jones and Turtle Islands, and
just south of these islands, from flowing out eastward,
and to compel them to increase the flow in the Cockspur Island channel. Its beneficial effect does not appear to be as evident as that of the jetty or training
wall from the lower end of Jones Island, which, in
fact, will perform services at the mouth of the river
similar to those to be rendered several miles above by
the jetty now in course of construction from Fig
Island and designed to protect and improve the new
channel at "the Wrecks."
The jetty from Jones Island would begin at or near
the outer end of the long wing-dam at the southeast
point of that island, and would run in an easterly
direction to the vicinity of Red Light Beacon and the
Quarantine Station, having a length of about 10,000
feet.
The more elevated portion of Oyster-Bed Shoal would
form a natural continuation of this jetty, which would
then be extended still further eastward for the protection of St. Michael's channel. The aggregate length
of these works is about 20,000 feet, and it is thought
that they can be built at the rate of $7 per linear foot
if they are about 4 feet high. Their construction will,
therefore, cost about $140,000, and this sum may be
adopted for the estimate, whether the work runs from
Jones' Island or from Turtle Island, the selection of a
location for the line of works being left open for the
present.
None of the wing-dams or training walls intended
for the improvement of this.seaward portion of the
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 155
river and shown on Captain Greeue's chart are recommended as strictly necessary at the present time, and
may perhaps not be required at all, with the exception of one or two spurs from Cockspur Island, which
would be useful and effective for concentrating currents
on the shoals south of Bed Light Beacon.
The aggregate length of these spurs is about 1,600
feet, and their probable cost is estimated at $20,000.
SHORE PROTECTIONS.
The places where the banks will probably be required to be protected from abrasion or undermining
are shown on the chart, and are marked thereon numbers 16, 21, 28 and 31. An estimate of the probable
cost of this class of improvements was embodied in
the supplementary project of March 19, 1879, which
was thought to be sufficient for the purpose.
DREDGING.
More or less dredging will yet be required on the
following portions of the ship channel below the city
of Savannah:
1. The new channel at "the Wrecks."
2. The channel at the head of Elba Island.
3. The shoals abreast of Elba Island (upper flats).
4. The shoals at lower end of Elba Island (lower
flats).
5. The shoals between Jones' Island and Long
Island.
6. The channel at Oyster-Bed Light and further
down. *
It is proposed to carry on the dredging operations
in conjunction with the construction of the works intended to concentrate the currents at the same places,
as far as practicable, in order that they may support
each other. For merely temporary relief of commerce, dredging will in future be resorted to in exceptional cases only.
156 MAYOR'S ANXUAL REPORT.
In the estimate of the cost of this kind of work
given in the supplementary project of March 19, 1879,
it is assumed that dredging would be restricted to the
places below Elba Island of less depth than 14f or 16
feet at mean low water, excavating a channel of 125
feet bottom width with side slopes of 1 to 2. On this
basis the total cost of dredging needed below the head
of Elba Island was estimated at $97,000.
ESTIMATK OF AGGREGATE COST.
It is submitted that the works hereinabove described,
with such modification in the number, location and
magnitude thereof as experience and observation may
suggest during the process of construction, will be required in accomplishing the improvement contemplated in section 3 of the River and Harbor Act, approved March 3, 1881.
Their aggregate cost, including land damages in addition to existing appropriation, is estimated at $730,-
000.
An economical construction of the works still required for improving Savannah River and harbor
seems to require the continuation of the system recently inaugurated* that is, that government should
do the work itself, wherever practicable, with the plant
already provided. Operations can then be carried on
continuously, and special modes of construction can
be introduced from time to time, whenever it may be
thought to be desirable.
There has been appropriated for the improvement
of Savannah River and harbor since the project of
August 28, 1873, was submitted, the sum of $482,000;
and there has been expended to December 31, 1881,
including outstanding liabilities, the sum of $352,355.
Regarding the question of the benefits that will accrue to commerce and navigation by completing the
work of improving Savannah River and harbor according to the project herewith submitted, I beg leave
MAYOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. 15?
to refer to the remarks made on that point in my annual report to the Chief of Engineers for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1881, as well as to preceding annual reports.
158 MAYOR'S ANNUAL BBPOBT.
FOREIGN EXPORTS, PORT OF SAVANNAH, 1881.
ARTICLES. Quantity. Value.
Cotton, Upland, 421,362 bales, Ibs. ..... 199,344,776 $ 22,013,792
Cotton, Sea Island. 5,260 bales., Ibs . .... 1,643,078 488,202
Rosin, bbls ................ 182,467 505,368
Spirits of Turpentine, galls ......... -1,297,193 507,921
Lumber, million feet ............ 12,280,000 200,207
Timber, cubic feet ............. 240,590 33.O57
Shingles and Staves, M . .......... 186,000 1,125
Barrels and Hogsheads, No. ......... 1,193 1,263
Phosphate.,tons . ............. 1,105 10,095
Flour, bbls. ................ 198 1,059
Cotton Seed, Ibs. .............. 784,601 8,750
All other articles .............. ...... 12,365
Total value ........ ....... . . . . . | $23,783,205
MAYOR'S ANNUAL &EPORT. 15ft I
COASTWISE EXPORTS, POET OP SAVANNAH, 1881
COMPILED BY FRANK E. REBARER, CLERK OP COUNCIL.
ARTICLES.
Butter, kegs and pkgs. ...........
Brick ...................
Cotton, Upland, bales. ...........
Cotton Seed Meal, tons ...........
Cotton Seed Cake, bags. ..........
Cotton Seed Oil, bbls ............
Cotton Seed Hulls, bales ..........
Car Wheels ................
Castor Oil Beans, bags ...........
Empty Barrels and Kegs ..........
Fruit, bbls .................
Goat Skins, bales .............
Melons ..................
Oil Cloth cases. ..............
Oil, bbls. .................
Palmetto, bales. ..............
Rice, bbls .................
Rice Chaff, bags ..............
Quantity.
81
3
12
1,920 '37
25,000
255,139
9.336
10
14,264
3,438
48
1,480
933
79
Jtty 1 j
30
100
00 QAA
3
38,959
31,407
2,251
104.367
4,000
rfte
29
12,340
III
12,400
46,857,995
3OO
191,560
176
ISO
7
1,110
469
1,370
500
3,826
jy*3*T
1,553
6,056
207,103
300
Value.
$ 972
420
Ann
1,440
407
.13,267,428
. 849,576
1 60
7i.3?o
6,876
136,308
17,760
4,665
3,95
900
8,100
250
132,176
435
3,895,900
15-700
12,506
417,468
16,700
300
370,200
300
313,375
757,860
. 875
15,320
8,500
1,000
3,000
250
5.000
2,700
900
5,000
783,080
4.659
800
. 2,500
569,533
2,100
160 MATCH'S ANNUAL RBPOKT.
COASTWISE EXPORTS.CONTINUED.
ARTICLES.
Shingles. .................
Shingles, bdls. ...............
Staves ...................
Turtles ..................
Tobacco, hhds ...............
Wool, bales ................
Total .................
Quantity.
16,753
789,725
1,454
51
318,885
831
6,152,832
320
1,338
1,583
150,846
3.320
40
......
Value.
$ 452,331
6,500
5,816
306
6,400
13,380
252,780
A OOO 452,538 491,360
$ 23,664,912
IMPORTS, PORT OF SAVANNAH, 1881.
ARTICLES. Quantity. Value.
Coffee, Ibs. . . .
Guano, tons . .
Other fertilizing
Brimstone, tons
Steel Rails, ton?
Steel Blooms. .
.............. 3,139,017$ 309,424
........'... 1,250 24,241
substances, tons. ...... 11,170 146,145
Cotton Ties, tons. . ............
Salt, Ibs. . . .
Sugar, Ibs . . .
Molasses, galls.
568: 15,842
4,496 158,916
4,403 154,549 1,855 70,081
....'.......... 141407,6031 22,079
.............. 10,248 480
Fruits of all kinds ................
Ale. galls . . .
Coal, tons . . .
Soap, Ibs. . . .
Earthenware . .
Chemicals, Drugs and Medicines. .........
AH other articles ..................
52,507 10,185
... 8,420
... 12,621
955 940
847 1.377
28,677 1,280
... 3.613
- - - 3,309
- 1,053
- - - 7,957
Total ................. I ..... .|$ 952,512
Duties collected. ................... . .$356,55022
MA YOB'S AfcUtTAt fcEfORt. 161
TONNAGE, PORT OF SAVANNAH, 1881.
VESSELS ENTERED AND CLEARED AT CUSTOM HOUSE.
VESSELS.
Total Foreign ................
Total ...................
Add tonnage of Coastwise not cleared at Custom
Grand total ...............
Tonnage.
10,729
13,052
151,463
355 823
532,299
508,422
355.823
1, 39s, 544
512,314
1,908,858
Men.
237
253
7,709
11,458
11,069
22,527
7.709
30,236
ii,i37
41,373
11
PORT OP SAVANNAH.COTTON STATISTICS FOR 1879.
COMPILKU BY E. F. BRYAN, SUPERINTKNDENT SAVANNAH COTTON EXCHANGE.
MONTHS.
1879.
February : March
April . May. !
July . j
October . !
Total . :
Gross Receipts.
1n
O.
D
86,779
51,762
2 cffi
19.157 12,693
3.398 1,230 942 83,668 162,419 162,129 133,872
. 743,565
a
% :
1.374
616
1 4T2
340
22 >
179 : 1,369
2,310
3,222 ;
10,788 i
Net Receipts.
e
rt
D.
a
85,983 51,695 25,516 19.157 12,693
3.398
1,220
942
83,046
161,098
130,789
_73J5.449
c
ayj i <
: l
616
T 114
; 340
: 22
: 179
. 1.369
2,310
' 3,222
1 ?.-788..
Exports
Great Britain,
TJ
flj
Q.
. S
21 724
19,632
7.887
7.OO7
13.208
387
4.744 33,466
30,920
188,516
T-J
a
*M
*
21
78
9
11
65
184
401
Exports Exports . Exports Exports
France. Continent. Channel. Coastwise.
K
1 "o ! ~o -v -d d
i. c . c . c . 'a O
; T> -a .g -o n -o n 88 ]c-S c-Sg-ac -K to
io- S a 8.a S a S ^
D <S1 iJ,!/)kJMD I/S !X
5,010 ' 85 33,225 . . ..... 32,275 1,328 ^
3,275 123 20,495 . . 3,925 ;. . 16,509 410 f
.... . . . , 42,081 . . . . ... 11,992 1,691 g
., . . . ... 10,249 ....... 12,710 1,092 M
;. . . . ....... . . ..... 11,037 49 J
.... ... : .... ..;..... 4,396 6 X
.......'.... ....... 1,666 24 i*
.................... 932 3
,..'.....:.... . . 1. 114;- , 38,951 ! 50
....:... 27,629 . . .....' 48,721 474
i 3.394 50,706 . . . . . :. . 55,875 2,095
j 4,107; 103 48,797 . . ...... 56,840 2,642
1 15,786 ' 311 [233.182 . _._[ 5.039. _: 29I.904__9.794
PORT OF SAVANNAH. -COTTON STATISTICS FOR 1880.
COMPILED BY E. F. BRYAN, SUPERINTENDENT SAVANNAH COTTON EXCHANGE.
MONTHS.
1880.
Gross Receipts,
a
1 : 1
, J
January ! 75,792 j 2,098
February 57,54 j 79 r
March 22,648 ; 1,311
April. n,706 ! 256
May . 4,707 ! 14
June . 5,463 ! 4
July . 2,445
August 15,068 * 23
September 123,586 . 119
October . 184,850 : 1,670
November: 159,001 ; 2,484
December ' 146,666 2,300
Net Receipts.
9
E A"3.
D
75,532
57.430
22,594
11,432
4,698
5.463
2,445
15,046
121,794
183,304
158,397
146,051
Sea Island.
2,096
768
1.297
251
14
4
23
119
J.443
2,417
2,300
Exports
Great Britain.
o
"5.
26,697
17.903
",675
9,608
Island. Sea
30
319

22,016
i 57.138
i 28,968
1 22,509
Total . 809,446 ' 11,070 ! 804,186 ! 10,732 1 196,514
225
no
989
1,673
: 1
Exports Exports Exports
France. Continent. Channel.
1 "5.
D
2.543
5,337
2,243
1,128
4,256
3,918
15.577
34.002
dI ; i M n
s ;
t/5 ; D
2030
55
28,074
20,223
3L414
5,782
5,001
d : TJ a . ' a
3 | 1-5
1 1 jl
t
!
184
270
549
27,308
35,941
73,913
230,413
... .....
Exports
Coastwise.
19
g
38,394 25,305
8,079
5.897 5-619
7,306
5.134 7,658
32,335 45,227
73,066
62,395
..:...:.. 316.415
Sea Island.
1,476
2,148
1.473
. 95
212
I
32 669
i,45'
1,221
8,912
K
I
<5
MONTHS.
January
February
March
April.
May.
June.
July.
August
September
October .
November
December
Total. .
PORT OP SAVANNAH.-COTTON STATISTICS FOR 1881.
COMPILED BY E. F. BRYAN, SUPERINTENDENT SAVANNAH COTTON EXCHANGE
rRoss RECEIPTS.
1 "E.
D
73,660
59.247
49.774
33,506
33,843
9.433
8,262
22.333
100,425
150,043
159.070
138,993
Sea Island.
3,536
3.205
365
3,085
804
4
' '58
2OI
1.430
2.931
3.471
815,588 1 16,980
NET RECEIPTS.
^s 1 C "uS
rt M
1
72,353 2,413 58,794 3,192 49,658 262 22,388 2,078 21,571 796
9,420 4
8,260 . . .
22,311 58
IO0.3IO 301
149,483 1,430
157.176 3,931
137.708 . 3,471
809,332 1 16,836
EXPOI
GREAT Bi
"5. JS
D
27,543
11,654
14,696
5.950
1,184
1,482
2,017
27,997
14,486
14,590
21,487
143,086
ITS
UTAIN.
.
o
1"w
tl
1
751 !
687
838
860
333
65
EXPORTS
FRANCE.
TJ a
a . , HH
4,622 . .
3,050 15
6,740 ;234
i
. . . 4,650 i . .
559 : 4.770 | 30
194 j 4,595 |2io
4,287 28,427 489
EXPORTS
CONTIN'NT
a
n
o.
28,994
26,888
48,649
16,273
5,799
4,642
4.396
20,102
56,369
38,200
250,113
EXPORTS
CHAN'L,
o
J
a,
D
....
EXPORTS
COASTWISE.
a
e
"5.
D
42,336
36,388
17,318
17,655
30,151
14,708
10,537
12,926
32,797
67,718
73,082
57,077
.... 1 392.483
Sea Island.
1,701
1.372
957
1.365
534
69
139
130
177
313
1,496
3,403
11,656
SAUtS.
Upland and
Sea Island.
64,921
53,537
29,305 36,311'
14,488
3,534
3.947
51)884
75.477
87,685
69,584
490,248

NAMES OF MAYOR AND ALDERMEN
FOR 1881-82.
MAYOR,
JOHN F. WHEATON.
CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL,
SAMUEL P. HAMILTON.
VICE-CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL,
MICHAEL J. DOYLE.
ALDERMKN,
1. SAMUEL P. HAMILTON. 7. WILLIAM E. GUERARD,
2. MICHAEL J. DOYLE, 8. CHAS. C. HARDWICK,
3. GEORGE C- FREEMAN, 9. DANIEL O'CONNOR.
4. WM. DUNCAN, M. D., 10. SIMON E. BYCK.
5. JOHN SCHWARZ.
6. JOSEPH A. ROBERTS,
11. JACOB J. ABRAMS,
12. A. J. AYLESWORTH.
STANDING COMMITTEES OF COUNCIL, 1-882,
AccountsAldermen Hardwick, Guerard, Abrams.
Docks and WliarvesAldermen Roberts, O'Connor, Aylesworth. - -
Dry CultureAldermen Doyle, Freeman, Hardwicfc.
EducationAldermen Duncan, Abrams,.Guerard.
FinanceAldermen Freeman, Hamilton, Schwarz, Hardwick, Guerard.
FireAldermen Roberts, Scbwarz, Doyle.
GasAldermen Hamilton, Byck, O'Connor.
Health and CemeteryAldermen Duncan, Hardwick, Abrams.
JoilAldermen Guerard, Byck, Doyle.
MarketAldermen Byck, Abrams, O'Connor.
PoliceAldermen Schwarz, Roberts, Guerard.
Public BuildingsAldermen O'Connor, Duncan, Aylesworth.
Public Sales and City LotsAldermen Abrams, Doyle, Roberts.
PumpsAldermen Byck, Doyle, Schwarz.
Savannah River ImprovementAldermen Abrams, Guerard,
Roberts.
Streets and LanesAldermen Ayleswortb, Hamilton, Byck,
Freeman.
Water WorksAldermen Hamilton, Dnncan, Hardwick.
BOARD OF SANITARY COMMISSIONERS.
AldermenWm. Dunnan, M. D., Geo. C. Freeman.
CitizensJ. R. Saussy, J. R. Hamlet. Dr. L. A. Falligaut.
COMMISSIONERS OF EDUCATION.
Aldermau Wm. Duncan. M. D., U. D. Walker, Commissioner
Chatham county.
CITY OFFICERS.
Cleric of CouncilFrank E Rebarer.
City Treasure?James E. Cope.
City MartialL. L. Goodwin.
City SurveyorJohn B. Howard.
Chief of PoliceRobert H. Anderson.
Lieutenant*3. T. Howard, T. J. Sbeftall.
SergeantsJ. B. Killourhy, John Green, S. C. Lee, Henry
Lingg.
Messenger of CouncilLnke Logan.
Corpora/ion AttorneyHenry C. Cunniugham
Judge of the City CourtWilliam D. Harden.
Clerk oj the City CourtPhilip M. Russell.
City SherijfDavid Bailey.
JailerWaring Russell.
Clerk of the MarketW. H. Bordley.
Harbor MasterJohn D. TenBroeck.
Keeper of City DispensaryLewis Cass.
Keeper Laurel Grove CemetervA. F. Torlay.
Keener of Fursyth PlaceTheodore Meves.
Keeper of Pest HouseMaurice Hardee.
Health Officer3. T. McFarland, M. D.
City PhysiciansF. T. Lincoln, M. D., T. B. Chisholm, M. D.
Chief FiremanOsceola Butler.
Assistant Chief FiremanGeorge Mouro.
Superintendent and Engineer Water ft ->rkAlviu N. Miller.
Scavenger ContractorWilliam Swoll.
Pump ContractorAlfred Kent.
Keeper City ClocksRobert Schnelder.
City PrintersJ. B. Haslam & Co.
Port WardensT. H. Laird. Charles Van Horn, Charles
Werner, John Power, Alexander Abrams.
Chimney ContractorsEastern Division, Henry C. Hastedt;
Western Division, C. Deubler.
City AssessorsR. D. Walker, Alfred Kent, John C. Taylor,
John M. Williams, B. R. Armstrong.

Locations