- Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842
- Answers to queries sent by the Lords of Trade [in] 1761, 1762 / Governor James Wright
- Georgia. Governor (1760-1776 : Wright)
- Date of Original:
- Five Civilized Tribes--Government relations
Creek Indians--Land tenure
Georgia--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
- United States, Georgia, 32.75042, -83.50018
- official reports
- This lengthy document is a response from James Wright (Royal Governor of Georgia, 1760-1776 and 1779-1782) to the British Lords of Trade regarding the province of Georgia. Wright describes the geography of the province, paying particular attention to bodies of water. He also writes about the size and location of the several Indian nations that surround the province, including the Creeks, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Cherokees, and Catawbas. He writes specifically about the Creek Indians, whom he says are greatly opposed to any English settlers moving beyond the boundary lines already established. Wright says that the Crown's prohibition against such encroachment has not been heeded, noting that some of General Oglethorpe's settlers had moved well into Creek territory. Wright goes on to list the items that are produced in the colony and complains that too many Georgia goods are shipped from Charleston, South Carolina for want of more ports and suitable ships on the Georgia coast. Wright also lists the military forts in Georgia, Spanish Florida and French Louisiana and he compares their condition and the numbers of their arms and troops. Wright closes his response with a list of the men employed in various offices of government in Georgia.
Digital image and encoded transcription of an original manuscript, scanned, transcribed and encoded by the Digital Library of Georgia in 2001, as part of GALILEO, funded in part by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services.
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- Bibliographic Citation (Cite As):
- Cite as: [title of item], James Wright, Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, presented in the Digital Library of Georgia
- 29 pages/leaves
- Original Collection:
- Manuscript held by the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, James Wright, box n/a, folder n/a, document 01.
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- Hargrett Library
1762. [ Note: The word Georgia appears on the top of each page that follows. ]
James Wright Esqr. [Esquire] Governor.
Answers to the Queries sent by The Right Honorable the Lords of Trade and received by me the
first of October 1761.
Answer to the first
The situation of his Majestys Province of of [of] Georgia, is on the South side of South Carolina and extends toward St. Augustine in Florida. The Lands are rather low, flatt [flat], the Soil upon all the Rivers and Swamps, strong, rich, and fertile, but intermixed with very large Tracts of Pine, Barren Land, some of it allay [alloy] Soil, but in several of a white Sharp Sand, not worth cultivation, which greatly -- impedes the settling of the Province, and often occasions the Plantations to be at a very considerable distance from each other, the Climate generally serene and clear.
From the latter end of
March to the end of
May, pleasant agreable [agreeable] weather. From the end of
May to the end of
September very hot and sultry, & generally attended with a depression of Spirits, Relaxation, and Debilitation. From the end of
September to the end of
to the end of
March, common winter weather, & sometimes intensely cold. We have no constant or periodical rainy seasons, tho' [though] generally more wet in
August than at other times. Towards the fall of the year intermitting Fevers, and Fevers and Agues are pretty common, and sometimes stubborn and very mortal Fevers, but they are not, frequent, also Pleurisies and Peripnewmonias [Peripneumonias], and in the Spring and Summer there is Disenterys [Dysenteries] & other Fluxes. The [added text: principal ] Rivers that lye [lie] south from Savannah River which is the Boundary between Georgia and South Carolina, as far Southward as St. Augustine in Florida are great Ogeche, Medway, Alatamaha, St. Maries, & St. John's. Savannah River on which the Town and present seat of Government is placed, has abundance of very good Plantations and Settlements on it. The Town is about 15 miles from the Sea, and the River extends a great way back into the country, on about a north west course, and is navigable for large Boats as far as Augusta, which is about 140 miles above Savannah by Land, but near 300 by water, and above Augusta this River runs about 150 miles the same course nearly N. W. [Northwest] into the Cherokee Country & there interlocks with the Tenassee River, a branch from the Ohio, but does not join it, therefore has no communication with the Missisippi, there being a small space of Land between that and the Tenassee,
above Fort Augusta is not Navigable for Trade, but the Cherokee Indians come down in Canoes to the Falls near Augusta.
The next River is great Ogechee which runs almost paralel [parallel] with Savannah River and is about fifteen miles to the southward, it goes into the Country about 300 computed miles and then spends itself in small branches, or Creeks, and is said to be navigable for Boats near 200 miles; on this River also are many very valuable settlements.
Medway River lyes [lies] about 9 miles to the southward of Ogechee; near the mouth of this River stands the Town of Sunbury on a pleasant hill fronting the Sound or inlet about 12 miles from the Sea. The River extends westerly about 7 or 8 miles above the Town. The next River is New Port about 10 miles to the southward of Medway and which runs near the same course and extent that Medway does.
Sapelo is 18 miles to the Southward of New Port, but the next River of any consequence is the Alatamaha, which is our south Boundary and about [word(s) omitted] miles to the Southward of Savannah. This is a very fine River,
and runs much the same course with Savannah River, & from the mouth to the forks is full 200 miles, and at the forks it divides, and that branch that continues the course of the same River is called the Oconee River and runs about 300 miles further into the Country, the other branch is called the Oakmulgee River and runs about [word(s) omitted] N. W. [Northwest] and by West course upwards of 300 miles into the country; it is navigable to the forks for Pettiaugues [Periaguas] and trading Boats, and a vast way further up, but the current runs so strong down, that the navigation would be slow and difficult, it enters itself into the Sea on both sides of St. Simons Island. The North Banks of this River is now Settling very fast, and if we were permitted to settle on the south side, there is great reason to think the province would encrease [increase] and flourish very considerably.
St. Marie's River lies about 50 miles to the southward of the Alatamaha, and extends back into the Country a considerable way and there is a vast Body of very fertile fine Lands lye [lie] between the Alatamaha and this River.
St. John's River lies about 60 miles to the southward of St. Marie's and extends back into the Country about N. W. [Northwest] & by N. [North] course, for 130 computed miles, and then turns to the Southward and Eastward
into the Sea and makes St. Augustine an Island. From St. John's to St. Augustine is about 40 miles. The distance to the southward of the Alatamaha are only by computation.
There are other small Rivers that lye [lie] between Savanah and the Alatamaha. Viz. Vernon and little Ogechee but of no very great consequence or extent, altho' [although] they are all pretty well Settled.
The Harbours [Harbors] known and generally are of Savanah and Sunbury, and there is good Navigation for Vessels at the place called Hardwicke on great Ogechee, & of Frederica on the South West side of the Island of St. Simons.
Tybee the inlet to the river Savannah lyes [lies] in the Latitude of 31 & 55 and Longitude of 80 west from London. The distance of the other places mentioned your Lordships [unclear text: see ] is but little. St. Augustine the newest Spanish settlement lyes [lies] South of Georgia in the Lat. [Latitude] of 29 & 46, and Longitude of 80, and 46 from London.
Mobile lyes [lies] about Southwest westerly from Savanah, on a River of that name in the Bay of Apalachee and the mouth of the River is in or near the Lat. [Latitude] of 30 and 20 as I am informed by masters of Vessels. And new Orleans lyes [lies] about west southwest of Mobile about 140 computed, miles in the Bay or Gulph of Mexico and Lat. [Latitude] of about, 29 & 50. N. B. [Nota Bene] There is no passing on a straight line from
Mobile to New Orleans, but the Land passage is a vast way round to head the morasses &c. &c. [et cetera et cetera]
Pensacola a Spanish Settlement lyes [lies] close by Mobile a little to the East or N. [North] East about 40 computed miles.
These my Lords are the only considerable French and Spanish Settlements in the neighbourhood [neighborhood] of this province, the Lat. [Latitude] and Long. [Longitude] of which I take to be pretty exact by observation chiefly. Besides which there is a small French Garrison of about 40 men, which is entirely dependant upon Mobile and about 150 miles from it, is one of the Towns of the Creek Indians, called the Albama Fort, by means of which the French influence with the Creeks is chiefly supported.
Answer to the 2d.
The nominal boundaries of this province are those mentioned in his late Majesty's Charter to the Trustees for establishing this Colony in the year
1732, and mentioned by his Royal Comission [Commission] to me, Viz. From the most northern stream of Savannah River all along the Sea Coast, to the southward [added text: un ] to the most southern stream of the Alatamaha, and westward from the Head of the said
Rivers in straight Lines to the South Sea, together with the Islands in the Sea lying opposite to the Eastern Coast of the said Lands within 20 miles of the same.
These my Lords are the nominal or reputed boundaries of this province and I do not know that any part of them are disputed, except whether a small Tract of Land on Savannah River be an Island and so belonging to Georgia, or part of the main Land and so belonging to Carolina, which matter will be easily settled, and it is worth enquiring [inquiring] into, and unless the claim of the Creek Indians may be call'd [called] to, for it was stipulated with them, that his Majesty's Subjects should not settle further from the Sea Coast, or westward, than the flowing of the Tides, which matter those people are very tenacious of, and at present extreamly [extremely] jealous of our making any encroachment on them. And here pardon me my Lords for observing that notwithstanding, this nominal boundary of the southernmost Stream of the Alatamaha in the Charter of the Trustees, yet General Oglethorpe extended his settlements southward, without any regard to that boundary; many Plantations were settled far beyond the Alatamaha, and marks of possession held, and the Lands claimed by him quite to St. John's River, and my Lords, there always has been, and to this day is, a Serjeants Guart [Sergeant's Guard] kept at
Fort William, near the South end of Cumberland Island, by a detachment from his Majesty's Independant [Independent] Company in South Carolina. The South point of Cumberland Island my Lords is called Amelia Sound and is the inlet between Cumberland and Amelia Islands and the mouth of the River St. Maries. And here I must inform your Lordships, that a sett [set] of People who were formerly settled on Cumberland Island and to the Southward of the Alatamaha at a place by them called new Hanover, and who were by his Majesty's orders in
February 1759, commanded to remove from thence, only made a shew [show] of doing so, but return'd [returned] again immediately, and that those people with some vagabonds & Runagates [Renegades] from Virginia, No. [North] Carolina &c. &c. [et cetera et cetera] are on those Lands to the number of 70 or 80 men, besides Women and Children, and which is out of my present authority and Jurisdiction. This is a matter my Lords, that has not very long come to my knowledge, and which I think it highly proper your Lordships should be made acquainted with, as it is a receptacle and Asylum for all Villains & Runagates [Renegades], and most injurious to this Colony; If it were his Majesty pleasure to extend his authority [added text: & ] Jurisdiction of this [deleted text: Province ] Government further South than the present nominal or reputed boundary, it would draw vast numbers of Inhabitants and be productive of the best ends for increasing the Strength, Riches & consequence of this Province to Great Britain.
The South boundary is a matter I wrote to your Lordships about in
Decr. [December] 1760, and should not have presumed to mention it again now, were I not required by your Lordships to give my opinion relative to the fixing true boundary Lines
Answer to the 3d Quere [Query]
The Trade of this Province is carried on with Great Britain, the northern Colonies & the English West India Islands. The amount of the goods imported from Great Britain the last year is 50,000£ prime Cost in England and the imports from the northern Colonies and Islands amounts to 7000£ Sterling, this is chiefly in Rum, Sugar, Molasses, Flour, Biscuit, Coffee &c. &c. [et cetera et cetera] and the Slaves imported in the two last years we computed at 18,000£ Sterling and upwards. There are ten Sea Vessels belonging to, or owned by persons who are settlers and Inhabitants of this Town Viz. Two Ships of 200 Tons each. Two Brigantines of 120 Tons each and Six Schooners of 40 Tons each, besides Coasters and small Craft. And these are navigated with about 100 Seamen in all. The number of Vessels enter'd [entered] at the Custom House in the last 12 months are 41. and the number Cleared out is 45. The Trade till lately has been but very inconsiderable, it seems now to be in a flourishing State, the cause of the increase your Lordships will see in my
answer to the 10th. Quere [Query] and I am in great hopes that some Vessels will very soon be fixed in a direct Trade between London and this Province. Hitherto all the European goods consumed here have been first carried to Charles Town South Carolina, and from thence reship'd [reshipped] hither. And almost the whole quantity of Deer Skins that are Shipped from Carolina, are in Fact the produce of this Province. But those and a considerable quantity of Indigo & Rice, is obliged to be carried from hence to Charles Town in South Carolina in Small Craft, for want of Ships here to carry it directly to Great Britain, and so appears by the Custom House Entries as the product of So. [South] Carolina, and not of Georgia which it really is. Another disadvantage in War time is the want of Convoy from this place; for tho' [though] the distance from Charles Town Bar here is not, with a fair wind above 10 or 12 hours run, yet the King's Ships that are ordered to convoy the Trade from thence, will not call off this Bar for any Ships, because, not ordered by their Instructions from the Lords of the Admiralty, and the article of Convoy making a difference of 15 p [per] Cent in the premium of insurance, the Merchants here find it more for their interest to send the produce to Charles Town and Ship it from thence, and this I conceive my Lords is a great prejudice to the Province
There are no Trades Works or
Manufactures set up, or about to be set up in this province, that I know of which are or may prove hurtful to G. [Great] Britain.
Answer to the 4 Quere [Query] .
The British Manufactures consumed in this province are Woollens [Woolens] & Linnens [Linens] of all sorts, Shoes, Stockings, Sadlery [Saddlery] Ware, Haberdashery, Cutlery, China, Earthen & Glass Ware, Axes, Hoes, Nails, Locks, Hinges and wrought Iron of all sorts, Brass, Copper, Pewter, Tinn [Tin], Oil, Paint, Bullets, Gunpowder, and East India Goods &c [et cetera] . The whole importation for the last year by almost an exact computation amounts to 50,000£ Sterling first Cost in England, as before mention'd [mentioned], and may be expected to encrease [increase] annually.
Answer to the 5th. Quere [Query] .
This province has no Trade with any foreign plantation or Island, except a little Lumber and Provision to Sainte Croix, and the Vessels generally go from thence to some of the British West India Islands, and so return with Rum, Sugar, Salt, And I know of no Trade from hence to any Port of Europe besides great Britain.
Answer to the 6th. Quere [Query]
The method used to prevent illegal Trade is by a due observance of the Laws of Trade & discharge of the duty of the several Officers of the Customs, Viz. Collector, Comptroller, Naval Officer and Searcher, in which I believe there are proper diligence. And I do not know, nor have heard of any illegal Trade carried on here except once, since I came, that a small Spanish Launch had put in at one of the Southern Rivers and brought some Dollars & Hydes [Hides], to purchase European goods, and this I only heard of accidentally sometime after. There may possibly be a little Rum and Sugar Run from on Board Vessels from Sainte Croix, but if any such thing is at all, it must be very trifling.
Answer to the 7th. Quere [Query] .
The general produce of the Country, is Rice, Indico [Indigo], Silk, Pitch, Tar, Turpentine, Corn, Pease [Peas], Potatoes; Hemp would grow very well. Boards, Planks, Lumber Shingles, & Hogshead Staves, &c. [et cetera] and Deer and Bever [Beaver] Skins are purchased from the Indians, great Stocks of Cattle, and Hogs, from which, quantities of Barrel'd [Barreled] Beef and Pork is made and exported, and a variety of other lesser articles of produce, as Hydes [Hides], Wax, Tallow &c. [et cetera] but the Staple Commodities are chiefly at present Rice, Indico [Indigo], Lumber
Shingles, and Hogshead Staves, and the amount of the exports for the year
1760 according according [according] to the nearest and best accounts I can get, is 40.688:6:8£ Sterling, besides the Silk, and the year
1761 will be considerably more Viz. 10,000 lbs. [pounds] of Rice, 15,000 of Indico [Indigo] . 200,000 Deer Skins, 310,000 feet of Lumber, 700000 Shingles, 130,000 Staves. 2800 Hydes [Hides] of Tann'd [Tanned] Leather, 700 lbs of Pitch, and other articles, in the whole computed at 43,718:16:8 Sterling besides the Silk, and altho [although] by this it may appear as [added text: tho' [though] ] the ballance [balance] of Trade is against the Province and therefore the Country indebted, yet my Lords it is not to be considered so, for the deficiency is made up in Bills of Exchange, and the Crops will increase greatly, for at present it is a young new-settled Country, and the plantations not yet in order to produce a full Crop, & the expence [expense] of settling new plantations is considerable, so that for the future the planter's expences [expenses] will be less every year, and their plantations more improved and in better order, will produce a greater quantity of Rice and more than Sufficient to ballance [balance] the imports. There is no Provincial Law for preventing abuses in the exportation of Produce, nor have any hitherto seem'd [seemed] necessary except one to prevent frauds in the making of Lumber, which was passed the
3d. of May 1760, to continue for two years and from thence to the next Session of Assembly.
Answer to the 8th. Quere [Query] .
There are no Mines that I have heard of, at least none are opened or worked, possibly there may be some in the mountainous back part of the Country.
Answer to the 9th. Quere [Query] .
The number of white Inhabitants according to the return I made in April last, were, men Women and Children about 6,100 since which the whites have encreased [increased] about 700, and the Blacks were then about 3600, and may now be reckoned at least 4,500.
Answer to the 10th. Quere [Query]
The Inhabitants are greatly encreased [increased] within these ten years, for in the year
1753, there was not more than 2381 Whites and only 1060 Blacks. This increase is owing to the great alteration in the Constitution and Government of the Province, Tenure of holding Lands, admission of Slaves &c [et cetera] The plan at first proposed by the Honorable the Trustees was not properly adapted for settling an American Colony.
Answer to the 11th. Quere [Query]
The number of the whole Militia in the province by my return to your Lordships in
Decr. [December] 1760,
was 895 and which are now encreased [increased] to about 1100, which are divided into three Regiments. One, of the Inhabitants in, about and near Savanah. One, of the Inhabitants about Sunbury, and to the Southward. And one, of the Inhabitants at and about Augusta and to the westward. The Officers have all Comissions [Commissions] from the Governor in his Majesty's name, and are regulated in in [in] their duty and directed by a Law of the province, by which they are compellable to appear at public Musters & Trainings on certain days appointed, the whole under the immediate Command and direction of the Governor agreeable to his Majesty's Commission and Royal instructions. This is not usually attended with any expence [expense] at all, but when particular circumstances has required an expence [expense], it has been [unclear text: depayed ] by the province, for which purpose a sum was raised in the Tax Law for the year
1760, to pay the militia who were obliged to be under arms and do duty on account of Indian alarms &c [et cetera] .
Answer to the 12th. Quere [Query]
At Savanah there is a Fort called Fort Halifax, it is constructed of Posts in the ground planked inside, and filled in with Earth. The figure of it is a square with 4 Curtains with Redoubts at each corner, each side being in the whole 200 feet and in which is a Powder Magazine and 4 Blockhouses or Coponires [Caponieres] each 20 foot square.
This work is in pretty good condition at present, but the materials of the Fort are of no duration and begin to fail already, the Block houses may stand some years, and would be very useful against Indian attacks, and there is two more of these Block Houses on the South side of the Town. These works are not Garrison'd [Garrisoned] by any of the King's Troops, but in case of necessity would be Garrison'd [Garrisoned] and defened [defended] by the Inhabitants, and the Detachment now here, being 16 of the Independants [Independents], and about 30 of the Georgia Rangers which are now doing duty at Savanah.
Fort Augusta on the River Savannah about 140 miles of Land from Savanah is a Stockade Fort about 40 feet square, but in a ruinous condition as appears by a Report [added text: very ] lately made to me by the Comanding [Commanding] Officer of that place. It is Garrisoned by about 35 from South Carolina, and thirty Rangers from this Province, all paid by his Majesty; those from Carolina at home, and the Georgia Rangers by Bills of Exchange drawn by me quarterly on Mr. Mortier the Deputy paymaster of his Majesty's Forces in America at New York, which draughts [drafts] are Vouched and Supported as directed by Mr Jeffery Amherst.
Fort Argyle about 19 miles from Savanah on Great Ogechee River, is a square Fort of 110 feet each way,
with two Rows of Barracks and is in good condition, and Garrisoned by thirty five of the Georgia Rangers paid as above.
Fort St. John about 10 miles from Sunbury and twenty eight miles from Savannah, is a Stockade about 200 Feet Square, not intended to be Garrison'd [Garrisoned] but occasionally, and built only for the protection of the Inhabitants of that part and the province in case of alarms and necessity. This Fort is in bad repair, has usually been Garrison'd [Garrisoned] by 30 of the Rangers but at present they are withdrawn from thence.
Fort Barrington on the River Alatamaha is a square Fort about 75 Feet each way with a Coponiere [Caponiere] in it and Barracks. The works are not yet finished, the money given by the province not being sufficient. What is done is in good condition. This Fort is Garrisoned by 25 of the Rangers.
There is a Serjeant [Sergeant] and three men at Fort William on the South end of Cumberland Island and a detachment of about 40 of the Carolina Independants at Frederica, they are at present under the direction & comand [command] of the Governor of South Carolina, a matter that appeared very inconsistent, and much to the hurt of the Service, of which I took liberty to acquaint your Lordships some
time ago, and have now wrote to several Merchants on the Subject. Besides these my Lords there are some small Stockaded Forts about the Province not Garrison'd [Garrisoned] but just to shelter the Inhabitants in case of any surprise, or sudden attack by by [by] the Indians. The expence [expense] of supporting the two Troops of Rangers for pay and subsistence, as drawn for by us, payable to each Captain quarterly is from 505 to 509£ Sterling and the Provisions are found them by the Agent Victualler. There is no other expence [expense] attending the Forts or places of defence [defense], but that of keeping them in repair and which is done by a general Tax. On the
19th of Decr. [December] I assented to a Law for building a Fort at Cockspur an Island situated at the mouth of this River, and a measure that seemed more necessary the Plan of which is now under consideration.
Answer to the 13th. Quere [Query]
The Creek Indians are the People of the consequence to this Province and are supposed to consist of about 2150 Gun men or Hunters, they have about 38 Towns.
The Chickesaws have always been sincere friends to the English, but do not contain in the whole above 350 Gun men, about [word(s) omitted] of which are settled near Augusta,
and the rest about 250 miles beyond the upper Creeks westward from thence.
The Chactaws are a very numerous nation supposed to contain about 4000 Gun men, mostly in the French Interest, altho [although] some pretend to be in ours. Their Settlements lye [lie] between the Creek Country & Mobile, but very near to the latter. The Cherokees and Catawbas lye [lie] more contiguous to the Province of South Carolina, & I presume from thence your Lordships will be clearly informed with respect to them. We have had many Treaties of Peace Friendship and Commerce with these people which are still subsisting; all those since the surrender of the Trustees' Charter to his Majesty, I conceive have been regularly transmitted to your Lordships. Mr. Atkin the late Indian Agent, it is said settled a kind of Treaty with part of the Chactaws, the beginning of the year
1760 but this was of very little signification, and a small party of Chactaws were down here in
October 1760, and for what was transacted there I must beg leave to refer your Lordships to the Minutes of Council in that month.
The quantity of Leather, purchased from the Creeks, Chickesaws, and Chactaws annually, is computed
at 200,000 weight. This Trade my Lords, is under the immediate direction and regulation of the Governor established by an Act of assembly whereby no person is to Trade with any Indians without a License from the Governor under penalty of 100£ Sterling for each offence [offense], and with this Licence [License] is given a sett [set] of instructions, to observe which the party gives Bond with security in the sum of 100£ Sterling. These are the standing instructions, and others are given occasionally and the Licences [Licenses] renewed every year. And for your Lordship's fuller information in this particular I have taken liberty to enclose you a Copy of the General instructions.
The people of So. [South] Carolina also Trade with these Indians, but the whole is and goes through this Province, and a difference of measures and Regulations in each province it is feared may be productive of mischiefs & bad consequences, and therefor [therefore] I would humbly submit it, whether the regulating the Trade and Granting Lincences [Licenses] to Trade with such as are in this Province, should not be exercised wholly by this Government. And that the Province of So. [South] Carolina should have no power to intermeddle, but that such people as live there and are disposed to Trade with the Indians in Georgia, should apply for Licences [Licenses], and be subject to its authority; for altho [although] it may be said that the Carolina people have nothing to do with affairs
out of their province, yet as they have always had that Trade till very lately, and I am informed are going to pass a Law relative to it, it has and I am very appreshensive [apprehensive] will occasion disputes and inconveniences if your Lordships are not pleased to interpose and grant an instruction to the Governor of So. [South] Carolina on this head, or give me directions therein. If this is not done my Lords, I have great reason to apprehend there will be differences and disputes between the provinces, and that many inconveniences will ensue. The Tribes of the Cherokees and Catabaws Indians lye [lie] convenient to So. [South] Carolina and might be under their management and direction as the Creeks & Chickesaws I should hope may be to Georgia.
Answer to the 14th. Quere [Query] .
The French in the neighbourhood [neighborhood] of this province are principally those of Mobile & New Orleans. There is a small Fort at the [unclear text: Albamas ] in the Creek Country before mentioned. These settlements my Lords are of the utmost importance to this province, and their effect the very worst possible, for as long as they continue possessed of these places, the Chactaw Indians will ever be in their Interest, & under their influence, and the Creeks wavering & indolent, and this province on such a precarious footing as must greatly
impede its settlements and improvements. The strength of the French in Louisiana is not easily to be known, but by the best accounts I could get, they had from 2000 to 2500 effective men before the conquest of Canada by his Majesty, but what numbers may have [deleted text: been ] gone [added text: cross ] the Country from Canada to Mobile, New Orleans, and the other settlements in Louisiana it is impossible to judge of.
The chief Spanish Settlement My Lords is at St. Augustine which is rather only a Garrison. Little is planted, I believe nothing but provisions and not a great deal of that, nor are any Manufactures made there; the Inhabitants are chiefly supplied with provision and dry goods from New York and the northern Colonies, and I believe some from So. [South] Carolina, and a few Cattle from hence, the number I cannot mention with much precision, but by my information suppose there may be 1200 men in all, & I have lately heard that a reinforcement of 500 men is daily expected from Havana: They have likewise a settlement at Pensacola near Mobile aforementioned where a small Trade is carried on, but I dont see that either of those settlements in time of Peace, have any other bad effect, save that of renewing and protecting run away Slaves, who as soon as they get there throw themselves into the hands & protection of the Priests, and are deem'd [deemed] by them as Freemen.
Answer to the 15th. Quere [Query] .
The only standing or established Revenue is the King's Quit Rents, and some very small and trifling duties, which duties are applied to the particular purposes mention'd [mentioned] and express'd [expressed] in the Laws that lay and raise them. And all other expences [expenses] of Government are borne and paid by a general Tax raised annually on all Lands, Slaves, and Monies at Interest, Stock in Trade &c &c [et cetera et cetera] . This money is appropriated towards the support of the Government and for the uses mention'd [mentioned] in the annual Tax Law, and is issued by Order of the Governor and Council upon the Treasurer, the accounts of those who have demands on the public are audited and passed by me in Council agreeable to the direction of the Tax Law, and to which I beg leave to refer your Lordships for a more particular account and satisfaction on this head.
Answer to the 16th. Quere [Query] .
The Civil Establishment of Officers who have Salaries and perquisites, is the Governor whose Salary is 1000£ Sterling. Perquisites or Granting Lands &c. &c. [et cetera et cetera] not 200£ p [per] annum.
William Gower Chief Justice appointed by his Majesty's sign Manual the
14th. April 1761. Salary 500£ Sterling p [per] annum. Perquisites about 25£.
William Clifton, Attorney General appointed by his Majesty's Sign Manual the
14th. April 1761. Salary 150£ Sterling p [per] annum: perquisites about 18 or 20£.
James Habersham, Secretary appointed by his Majesty's Sign Manual
11th. April 1761. Salary 100£ p [per] annum. Perquisites about 50£ after paying a Deputy and all expences [expenses] of Stationary.
Sir Pat. [Patrick] Houston [unclear text: Bartr. [Barrister] ] Receiver of his Majesty's Quit Rents and Register of Grants appointed by me the 10th. Inst. [Instant] to succeed his Father who dyed [died] the 5th Inst. [Instant] Salary 100£ Sterling. Perquisites about 37£.
William Knox Provost Marshall appointed by his Majesty's Sign Manual
27th. October 1758. Salary 100£ p [per] annum. Perquisites about 60£. after paying a Deputy.
Henry Yonge, William De Brehn Surveyors General appointed by his Majesty [word(s) omitted] Lords of the Treasury.
28th May 1761. Salary between them 150£. Perquisites about 100£ between them.
William Spencer, Collector of the Customs appointed by the Comissioners [Commissioners] of the Customs in Great Britain the
16th. of June 1761. Salary 60£ Sterling, Fees 36£ p [per] annum.
William Russell, Comptroller of Do. [Ditto] appointed by the Comissioners [Commissioners] of the Customs the
16th. June 1761. Salary 50£: Fees 13£ p [per] Annum.
John Tally, Naval Officer appointed by Governor Ellis and was re-appointed by me. No Salary, perquisites about 25 £ p [per] annum.
William John Longie, Searcher appointed by John Cleland Esqr. [Esquire] late Comptroller of the Customs for the South district of North America
3d. of March 1759, Salary 30£ perquisites 15£ p [per] annum. The Salaries of all the above Officers are paid by the Crown.
Noble Jones, Treasurer appointed by Governor Ellis the
16th. February 1760. He has no Salary but Comiss. [Commission] of 5 p [per] Cent which on the last years Tax amounted
to about 65£, and may this year amount to 80.£:.
Charles Weston Clerk of the Council and upper House, under Mr. Habersham, in whose appointment as Secretary, this office is supposed to be included. The whole annual income is about 60£. Sterling after paying a Clerk & for Stationary.
Thomas Burrington Clerk of the Assembly appointed by Govr. [Governor] Ellis
15 April 1757. Salary from 20£. to 25£ Sterling paid here. Perquisites about 50 to 55£ the whole about 100£ Sterling pr. [per] annum.
John Graham Commissary General and Clerk of the accounts appointed by Governor Ellis
27th. March 1757. For the first he has a Salary of 20£ p [per] annum paid by the province. For the other he is allowed a salary of 40£ p [per] annum, paid out of the contingent money Granted by Parliament. These Offices are attended with a great deal of trouble and take up much time.
Noble Jones, James Deveane, Elisha Butler, Edmund [unclear text: Fatmatt ], assistant Justices appointed by the Governor. No Salary or perquisites are allowed them.
Charles Price Clerk of the Crown & Prothonotary in the General Court, also Register and Examiner in Chancery. The whole perquisites amount to about 40£ p [per] annum on executing all these Offices, there is no Salary to any of them.
Grey Elliott Deputy Auditor appointed by the Honorable and Reverend Mr. Cholmondely.
James Edward Powell Judge of the Admiralty no Salary. Perquisites uncertain, but has been the last year only 5£: Sterling.
William Spencer Register of Do. [Ditto] no Salary and the perquisites 16£ Sterling p [per] annum.
William Russell Powder receiver, no Salary, but the perquisites are about 8£ Sterling p [per] annum.
Edmund Pearse Messenger and Door keeper to the upper House of Assembly, Salary 25£ p [per] annum paid by the Province.
Thomas Lee Messenger and Door Keeper of the Assembly 25£ paid by the Province.
The same gunner of Fort Halifax, no Salary, but his account for occasional Services amounts to about 10£ p [per] annum;
Answer to the 17th. Quere [Query] .
The Constitution of the Government is a Governor, Council, and assembly appointed and established by his Majesty's authority. A Court of Chancery established in
October, and held the
6th. of Nov. 1761. over which the Governor presides as Chancellor, this by Vertue [Virtue] of the Custody of the Great Seal, for which see a Letter of your Lordships Board to Governor Ellis dated the
14th. Decr. [December] 1759.
[deleted text: [illegible text] ] A Court of Common Pleas or General Court established in
Decr. [December] 1754. & held the
14th. January 1755. And a Court of Admiralty established and held the
16 January 1755, -- All these by vertue [virtue] of the several powers & authorities given to the Governor by his Majesty's Comission [Commission] & Instructions with the advice and consent of the Council.
A Court of Oyer & Terminer and General Goal [Jail] Delivery established in
December 1754, and held the
10th of that month.
[ Note: A drawing of a hand appears on the left of the page. ] [added text: [document damaged: Th ] is Paragraph misplaced. [document damaged: It ] should immediately precede [document damaged: the ] foregoing Paragraph ]
The Rules and method of proceeding are as
near as may be agreeable to those in use and practice in his Majesty's several Courts in Great Britain, and the Judges and all other subordinate Officers are appointed as herein before mention'd [mentioned] .
All which is most humbly submitted to your Lordships by my Lords
Your Lordships most Obliged and most Obedient Servants
[Signed] James Wright
Savannah in Georgia
15th. February 1762