Notes and observations on the pine lands of Georgia : shewing the advantages they possess, particularly in the culture of cotton : addressed to persons emigrating, and those disposed to encourage migration to this State : together with a plan of emigration, for their immediate settlement : to which is added a geographical sketch of the state of Georgia, with a comparative view of the population of 1791, and 1801, and the exports of the years 1791 & 1800 / by George Sibbald

Collection:
Georgia Historic Books
Title:
Notes and observations on the pine lands of Georgia : shewing the advantages they possess, particularly in the culture of cotton : addressed to persons emigrating, and those disposed to encourage migration to this State : together with a plan of emigration, for their immediate settlement : to which is added a geographical sketch of the state of Georgia, with a comparative view of the population of 1791, and 1801, and the exports of the years 1791 & 1800 / by George Sibbald
Creator:
Sibbald, George, of Augusta
Publisher:
Sibbald, George, of Augusta. Notes and observations, on the pine lands of Georgia, shewing the advantages they possess, particularly in the culture of cotton. Addressed to persons emigrating, and those disposed to encourage migration to this state. Together with a plan of emigration, for their immediate settlement. To which is added a geographical sketch of the state of Georgia, with a comparative view of the population of 1791, and 1801, and the exports of the years 1791 & 1800. By George Sibbald. Augusta, Printed by William J. Bunce. 1801.
Date of Original:
1801
Subject:
Georgia--Description and travel
Georgia--Economic conditions
Georgia--Emigration and immigration
Location:
United States, Georgia, 32.75042, -83.50018
Medium:
books
texts (document genres)
Type:
Text
Format:
application/pdf
Local Identifier:
gb0385
Metadata URL:
http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/id:dlg_zlgb_gb0385
Digital Object URL:
http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/georgiabooks/do-pdf:gb0385
Extent:
71, [6] p. 22 cm.
Holding Institution:
University of Georgia. Libraries
Rights:
Rights Statement information

*"
t A
\

ON TH&

PINE BOF Aj Hi

E O R G I A,
SHEWING THE ADVANTAGES THEY POSSESS*

PARTICULARLY IN THE
CULTURE OF COTTON*

ADDRESSED TO PERSONS EMIGRATING,

AND THOSE PISPOf ID TO

m



____ ..

Encourage Migratioir to this State*

TOGBTHES. WITH A
PLAN OF EMIGRATION,

-FOR. THEIR IMMEDIATE &ETTLEMEVT.



To vokick is added a Geographical steel of tk State toitk a comparative view of the Population of 179X9 and 1801, and the Exports of tkt Years 1791 &* 1800.

GEORGoEPI~BBALD,
AUGUSTA.

AUGUSTA:

.1"1^

PRINTED BY WJLLIAM J.

E F A C E.'
A N D O R obliges me to acknowledge^ that self-inter^ ts ground iverl of my present address to persons Emigrating to tike state if Georgia ; but whilst I make tits acknowledgment, I must be permitted to say, that no personal advantage that I may have contemplated^ of fav* pfRed, shall induce me to prostitute my fen, my feelings or my etaraffefj by an unfair representation, which could cause the peer Emigrant ft raise his voice against me and say you have deceived me. And I Will
Jr be bold to say, that nothing contained in the following sheets will ever raise a frown from those, who may be thereby induced to move into this State.
IN this statement I have the prejudices of many people to encovnttr% who judge of tfie Pine Lands of this State, from the value of Pine Lands in the more Northern States. Those Lands "dill tear no hind of compa rison with the Pine L ands cf this State ; and I can venture to eusert: that there is no Lard of any kind (unless near large Tcwrts, where they are lughly cultivated and forced by manure) that -will produce a croft of any lind, of ec-r.l value to what may }e made from the same quan tity of Georgia Tine Lar.d, when proper^ cultivated in CottM.
GEORGE SIBBALJ9.
AUGUSTA; GrCRCIA, l8ci.

PINE LANDS OF GEORGIA.
rANDS upon which there is a pine growth have been for many years fuppofed to poffcfs but little value, except for the Timber j confequently the imttienfe Forefts of this State, clothed with trees of that growth, have been very generally uncultivated.
THE name of Pine Barren, by which Pine Lands have been generally defignated ; particularly during the fpeculative mania, which for many years led people to the purchafe of any thing, that bore the name of Land j has been a reafon among many others why thofe land* have fo long been neglected.
UPON my firft arrival in the State of Georgia, I patied in the Stage from Savannah to Augufta, where the road generally runs upon a barren and uncultivated ridge. I here felt all the prejudice that the appearance of fuch Lands is calculated to infpire. I had always heard the name of Pine Barren applied to all Pine Lands, and felt fatisfied, like many other bafy travellers, that Pine Lands poflefTed no value j but upon a more minute enquiry af ter my arrival at Augufta, I found that there were as various qualities of Pine Land a$ there were of Oak and Hickory : And that the Pine Lands in moft parts of the

[6j

-,

State, were of a better quality, than any I had feen.' As I had feen fome Farms upon the road, where, in fpite of my prejudices, I found the appearance of plenty , I thought it worthy of fome further inveftigation. My fole motive in com'ng to this ftate, was to inveftigate and explore property of this kind : I therefore determined to explore the Piney Woods, and the confequence was, that upon converting with the people, who were fettled upon thofe lands, and who were then but thinly fcattered through this immenfe Country ; I found that the Lands -yielded abundant Crops, particularly of Cotton : I every where found the Pine Lands, where the induftrious Farmer or Planter had made fettlements, to be in a fituation that promifed plenty and profit. Every man that I converfed with aflured me, that to deftroy the name (for in fact there was no reality) of Pine Barren^ and to induce Induftrlous men of Character to fettle on fuch lands was all that was wanting to make them truely valuable.

THE foil of the Pine Lands is generally fandy, or a mixture of fand and loam , and wherever you find a clay foundation (which is generally the cafej from eight to twenty inches below the furface, thofe Lands, are to be preferred ; particularly for the culture of Cotton.

THIS truely valuable plant, which has become the ftaple commodity of this State ; and which bids fair to encreafe the exports thereof, in point of value beyond theamDunt of any State in the Union, is moft particu larly adapted to the Pine Lands, which when properly prepared and cultivated, will produce equal to any lands in the State, except thofe of the firft quality. It is true that the Sea Ifland Lands are generally better adapted to the culture of Cotton, and the Cotton will bear a higher

[73
price; but the companion between the profit and the price, will prove that the Pine Lands are moft valuable to the induftrious Emigrant.
THE price of an acre of Land on the Sea Iflands, or what is called Hammock Lands, on or near the Sea Coaft, is from ten to twenty dollars. The price of an acre of Oak and Hickory Land, in the Counties commonly called the Upper counties, and which lay to the weft ward of a line drawn from about eight miles above Augufta, where the Oak and Hickory land commences, in a South "Weft direction to the Oconee River, is from four to ten dol lars j except that of an inferior quality : which, may -be had from one dollar to four dollars per acre, according to the advantages of fituation.
UPON all the water courfes of the State, there is a proportion of what is termed Swamp Land ; this Lan4 is extremely rich, loaded with a heavy growth of white Oak, red Oak, and many other valuable trees. The Rivers Savannah, Ogechee, Oconee and Alatamaha, have immenfe bodies of this Species of Land, which fells from four to ten, and in fome fhuations as high as twen ty dollars per acre.
THE Counties of Jefferfon and Burke, which lye to the Eaftward, of the line which I have before defcribed, are the only Counties below that line, that have any quan tities of Oak and Hickory Land (river Swamps excepted) thofe lands are generally fold high, and may be^eftimated at from five, to fifteen dollars per acre.
THE price of an acre of firft quality Pine Land, as now offered by me at an half dollar per acre will prove, which fuits the new fettler beft.

C8]
THE Sea Iflands are covered with a heavy growth 6f Live Oak, Pine, &c. are full of undergrowth of fhrubs and Palmetto, which require much labour and a great many bands to prepare for cultivation a Cotton Planta tion. A labouring hand generally tends fotfr acres, befides provision ground, which produces on an avarage from one thoufand to twelve hundred pounds of clean Cot ton.
THE Oak and Hickory Lands, bare much the fame companion as to labour of clearing, and a hand can tend tBe fame quantity of land: and where it is of the firft quality, which commands the prices before quoted, will produce upon an average about Eight hundred to one thoufand pounds of clean Cotton to each hand.
THE Pine Lands are covered with ftately trees; Vfith but little undergrowth; thofe trees being high, and their limbs a great diftance from the ground, require no more attention in clearing, than to cut round the trees, commonly called girdling, this kills them; fuch only as are neceifary for fencing and building are cut down, and there is but Kttle neceflhy for grubbing. The Planter by penning his cattle at night, kills the grafs and pre pares the land for early cultivation; and a hand can tend five acres with eafe; which will produce from Eight hun dred to one thoufand pound of clean Cotton. When I fey a hand can tend five acres, I include the necefTary at tention to the cultivation, of provisions and picking in the Cotton , and this can be done by every perfon above fifteen years of age ; but when there is a family of chil dren of fix years of age and upwards, that can attend to the picking the Crop, twenty acres can be cultivated with cafe by one man, particularly upon the Pine Lands. Sup-

E9]
pofc a mans family to confift of his wife and four children, from fix to twelve years of age he can fecure the twenty acres, which on an average of eight hundred pounds of feed Cotton to the acre, will produce fixteea thoufand pounds, equal to four thoufand pounds of clean Cotton, clear of the expence of Ginning; this at a quarter of adollar ^perpound, amounts to one thousand dollars clear money, betides fupporting jus^amjly. Can this be done in any other State in the Union ? The fame fpecies of Cotton which grows on the Se^ Iflands, called black feed Cotton, will grow on the Oak and Hickory and Fine Lands -, but as the culture of the green feed Cotton is more fimple, it has been generally preferred; and from many trials that have been made, the black feed has been found to anfwer as well in the middle and upper parts of the State, as on the fea coaft, and the Cotton to bear the fame price. There is however generally a difference in favour of the black feed Cotton of twenty-five, and fometimes thirty per Cent; but this is owing more to the want of attention and proper management in cleaning it, than to any other caufe, this has been clearly proved by feveral Planters, who have Ginned and fhipped their Crops to
A Great-Britain, where they have obtained a price nearly
equal to the Sea Ifland Cotton. ------------------
IT is to be regretted that many frauds have been committed in the packing of Cotton. No punimment could be too fevere, that could be inflicted on perfons who bafely attempt to injure the reputation of a whpls country, and deftroy the credit of its ftaple commodity, for the fake of a trifling profit. I have been in many countries where Cotton has been a great article of com merce, but have never heard of any frauds that made an
neceflary. If in addition to the fcrew auger B

wfikh is now generally ufed by the Merchants, the gjflature, was to pafs a Law obliging the owners of all Cotton Gins to enter them with the Cferk of the Superi or Court of the County in which they re&ie, and upon fucfe entry make oath that they wouid well and truly Gin ail Cotton that was offered, and pack the feme, vithout fraud or deceit, and be obliged to put their names oo each bag -, it would fureiy curb this growing evil.

COTTON has become the ftaple of the chief manufaftories in Europe, and the demand of t'ais valuable articl edaily increafing. It appears by the lad return of Exports that we fhipped from the United States in one year, one hundred and feventy million, feven hun dred and eighty-nine thoufand, eight hundred and three pounds of unmanufactured Cotton, of which twentythree thoufand five hundred and forty-three Bales were landed in London -, and twenty-four thoufand feven hun dred and ninety-nine Bales in Liverpool. This appears from a late &atement to be more than one fourth of all the Cotton, 'that was brought into thole ports in the
1800.

~ j - THE demand for Cotton is daily increafing, and the
,~*J "*
;.;.. fnanufadlories of hemp, linen, and many woollen good*

gre giving way to thqfe of Cotton. When we confider

'the ravages of a long war in the Weft-Indies; the al-

moft total deftrucYion of the Plantations in many of the

Iftands, where Cofton was formerly cultivated; that an

nual fcour^e of the Weft-India Iflands Hurricanes^ which,

^j

.

f

frequently lay wafte not only the crops, but every build

ing on the Plantations, and even life itfelf is in eminent

dan.^ger d^ u^ringf^ the- ir co.n~t.inuan-.ce -., the dif,fi~cu,.lty o,-f

t]
Caring provifions <for wfetch they arc obliged to be de pendent on the United States) for a gang of negroes , add to this the difadvantage of a very fkkly climate (and the confequent necefTity of cultivating the lands entirely with flaves) which generally carries off one otft of foor of all the negroes that is landed hi the Iflands : When fhofe things are confidered, a companion in the Advantages we , poffefs, is hot necefTary, for we never cad be rivaled in that ftaple.

A WRITE* in theyfear 1789, dated, that twenty yean*

before that time, the whole Cotton trade of Great-Britain,

%

.

did not return two hundred thoufand pounds to the cotm-

. try for raw materials and labour combined ; and only fifty

thoufand fpindles were employed in fprrimng the Gottoti

into yarn. In 1789, the" number of fpindles was nearly

two millions, and the returns of Cotton iVIrmtffaftures ex

ceeded feven millions fterlmg. There were thert employed

in thatbufinefs, one hundred and forty- three water mills;

above twenty thoufand hand engines, or jennies, and

about twenty-fix thoufand men; thirty-one thoufaftd wo

men and fifty-three thoufand children engaged in fpin-

ning alone. And in the fubfequerit ftages of the ma-

mifaAories, one hundred arid thirty-eight thoufand men,

fifty-nine thoufand women, and fifty-eight thoufand chil

dren, making an aggregate of four hundred and 6fty

thoufand perfons.

SINCE that period the Cotton Manufactories of Great-

Britain, have encreafed beyond cafcufation ; and there is

hardly an article of female drefs, and many articles, par

ticularly the fummer wear of the men, which are not to-

.(

tally fabricated of cotton; without taking into view,

\

Jeans, Fuftians, Corduroys, Thickfetis, Hofiery and

12
moft articles of domeftic ufe, which have been ufed, not only in our country, but in every part of the habitable globe.
EVERY effort to confume Cotton that could be devifsd, ought to be attended to by the people of the Unit ed States. One of the firft reflexions that occurs to the mind is, that Cotton may be made a (ubftitute for wool, in many coarfe, bulky articles, as well as for hemp and fhx. We fee daily brought to market Cotton counterpains, blankets, cotton cloth for (heets and fhirting, ftriped Cotton both for men and womens wear, table cloths, curtain furniture, handfomely worked in figures with coarfe cotton, and a variety of other articles of domef tic ufe. It is here worthy of remark that the Indians prefer every kind of homefpun and will not purchafe the flimfey European goods, which were formerly impofed on them, while the more polifhed world are daily exchang ing fuch fubftantial commodities for trifles no better than a cobweb. There are a vaft quantity of blankets ufed in all parts of the United States, and if the country people were to mike them and fend them to market, white, black and white, indigo dyed, or bark dyed, there cer tainly would be a great fale in the middle and nothern States. There is no regular Manufactory, which might be more fafely attempted. Carpets of blue, red, purple, yellow, green, black or bark coloured, made of cotton of large heavy yams, would fell in great quantities and would be in ufe from the South to the North. The duty of woolen carpets is 15 per cent and will not be leflened.
China and the Mediterranean they ufe cotton fall cloth ; it lafts much longer than fall cloth made of hemp and is not fo apt to mildew : the coarfeft kind I am

t
of opinion, would be tKe moft profitable to us as long as our object is to confume our Cotton.
PAPER may be made of Cotton, and mixed with linen rags I am well afTured will make fuperior paper to linen rags alone,
SMALL rope and lines of various kinds, towit, lead lines, deep Tea lines, log lines, fiming lines, pendant halyards and fmall cordage for various fhip ufes, which together with chalk lines, leading lines, bed cords and white rope (of which great quantities are ufed) might confuine a vaft quantity of Cotton. The ftained Cotton which is now either left in the field or thrown away at the gins, would anfwer for many of thefe purpofes,
IT merits attention, that no raw material receives, or retains, colours by dying more beautifully or more per fect than Cotton.
IF Societies were formed for the encouragement of agriculture, manufactures and the ufeful arts, and were to offer premiums for certain quantities and qualities of Cotton Goods, of thofe or other coarfe manufactures, they would certainly render general benefit to the Union.'
THE Southern Planters in particular ought to endea vour to make or purchafe cotton blankets, rugs, car pets, &c. Sec. and if cotton bagging could be made at a fmall additional price it ought to be preferred. Wool in Europe is much higher than cotton is here; the duties on coarfe, bulky and heavy woolen goods are from 10 to 15 per cent and the freight and charges extremely high on account of their great bulk. Woolen goods are lia ble to injury from the moth 3 but cotton are not.

AFTER having inade the fSregoing obfervatiohs and

comparifons, no doubt can arife of the growing value

of Cotton Lands, and no argument is neceflary, to prove

"

-- *

'

What defcription of Lands ought to be prefered by Emi

grants, Who move to this State: The cornpanfdft in

price will prove this beyond a doubt, and experience will

ihew the planter, that on Land which he can now have at

half a dollar per acre, he can make as much Cotton and

inany other articles, as upon Land that he could not pur-

cHafe for lefs than from four to ten dollars per acre.

IT is called bad management for Farmers or Plan ters to tire Land as it is generally termed ; but in dearing land upon firft moving to a new country, it is moft -certainly an advantage to make two crops a year from the fame ground -, this can be done here to better advan tage than in any part of the World. I have feen a fine crop of wheat growing on the Pine Lands, which was reaped in May, and then planted in Indiaii Corn 5 when they were done ploughing the corn, they planted peafe, fo that three entire crops were made from one field in the feme year.

AFTER Pine Lands have been cultivated, and cowpencd or manured, they will produce better crops of fmall grain than Oak and Hickory Lands, and in their natural fiate equal crops particularly of wheat. I have feen four acres of Pine Land in which four bufhels of white wheat were fbwn, which produced a crop of one hundred and {even buftiels, which averaged fixty-eight pounds per bnmd, this field had been in cultivation nearly twenty years.

( THE Spanim or Sweet Potatoes thrive in the pine foiV and from three to four hundred buftiels are produ ced from an acre.

3
EVERY fpectcs of grain, roots, fruits, and vegttt* ties, which grow in the United States and in Europe wii thrive in the Pine Lands.
PEACHES thrive in a pine foil fuperior to any other foil, and thofe of this ftate are fuperior in quality and fee tp any in the world: The peach commonly eaS-. ed the Indian peach, generally, weighs from twelve to fourteen ounces. Fifty acres planted in peach trees will produce generally from one thoufand to fifteen hundred gallons of brandy, which feldom fells for lefs than one dollar per gallon: They do not prevent the cultivation of the Earth, as they are planted at fuch a diftance as no way to injure any Crop that is planted with them, and in three years from the time of putting the ftone in tha ground they will bear.
THERE are a number of very handfome, thriving,' Peach and Apple Orchards in almoft every part of the State. Cherries, Pears, Nectarines, Plumbs, Damfons, Quinces, Strawberries, R a/berries and every fpecies of fruit is now growing in great perfection.
GRAPES grow wild a,nd in the greateft abundance i& every part pf the Southern States. The Europe^ Grape has been tried and found to anfwer, fuperior tp the expectation of the mqft fanguine, we therefore want nothing but the people who are acquainted with the mcKfc of cultivation, and manner of making wine, to enable us to make wine equal to any made in Europe. During fifteen years Peter Legeaux of Springfield, thirteen miles N. N. W. of Philadelphia, has been engagql in cultivating vines. He propagates the kinds which in France produce the Champaign, Burgundy and
wfeh at Ac Cape of Good

H6pe~ affords the Conftantia wines. In the year 1793, he had his firft vintage from the three former, which, are naturalized to the American foil. His vines haFe fo thriven and encreafed that they have afforded not oniy liquors to drink; but at this time they abound with {hoots for cuttings, to plant and rear other vineyards. To encourage the cultivation of vines the Legislature, of Pennfylvania, on the feventh of March, 1800, paflcd an acl:^ and appointed fifteen Commiffioners, to procure fubfcriptions for railing a capital in fnares to be applied to the furtherance of this object. After one thoufand {hares are fubfcribed, the Company is to be incorporated. Each {hare is twenty dollars. The Commiilioners exprefs their conviction, that the Americans have it in their pow er to fupply themfeives with wine of their own growth, equal in ftrength and flavour, and fuperior in wholefomenefe and purity to any which they can import. The means by which they are attempting to accompliih this, are, firft by railing in their own vineyards a conftant fup ply of the plants, of the beft fpecies of vines j to be diftributed abundantly and on eafy terms, throughout the Country. Secondly, by training a number of Vine Dreflers, who having acquired the neceflary fkill, /hall be capable of attending to and teaching the cultivation of Vines in any part of the Country to which they may be called: And giving inftructions in the arts of making wine, brandy and vinegar from the juice of the Grape. If thofe attempts have fucceeded in fo cold a climate as Pennfylvania, we have furely a right to expect that any efforts to raife the Vines in the Southern States will be crowned with complete fuccefs.
OUR climate being fimilar to the South of France

C '7 )

and part of Italy, leaves no doubt but that we might

raife all the luxuries which we now import from the

Mediterranean; all attempts which have been made to

raife the fruits common to thofe climates have fucceeded.

Figs, Almonds, Grapes, Olives, Capers, Oranges, Le

mons and many other fruits are now cultivated in this

State.



\

A TRACT of Land of any magnitude can hardly be found, but a Creek, a River or fome Stream pf water runs through it , hence 'tis obvious that thofe Lands will become immenfely valuable for the erection of Saw Mills, which in the hands of induftrious men will always be a fource of wealth, and wherever Lands [ are fituated near a Creek or River from whence lumber can be floated to the Ocean, the trees, on the Land which the planter will find neceflary to clear for cultiva tion, cut and properly fquared into ranging timber, will eafily enable the induftrious man to pay, for a large tract of Land.

A SAW-MILL to run two Saws, may be built in common fituations where the dam is not required to be very long, for two or three thoufand dollars. Seven la bourers are fufficient to conduct it. By fuch a Mill five hundred thoufand feet of boards may be cut in a year, which generally fells from fourteen to fixteen dollars per thoufand feet.

TAR, Pitch and Turpentine, may be made to great advantage and a ready fale always found for it. Millions of barrels may be made within thirty miles of the Ocean, and nearly double the price always obtained for It a
\*

C >8
vartnafi, to what it brings in North-Carolina, where they fometimes bring it on rafts nearly two hundred miles, to the fea ports.
f HAY is made here eafier than in any part of the ! known world, and it is a curious facl, that one acre of i Pine Land manured or cowpened will produce two tons of ' excellent Hay. This Grafs is called crowfoot, and is | aftually produced without fowing any feed, and is dif
ferent from the natural Grafs. All the preparation, that is neceflary to produce it, is to take a fie'd Jut has been I cultivated; plough and harrow the Land after manuring and cowpening it. This Grafs has been raifed in this manner by many people, but has been more parti cularly attended to by Major Cowles near Augufta, and Mr. Pearce on the Savannah road. They have found it equal to timothy : It grows about three feet high. I The proper feafon to prepare the ground is the laft of | May, fo that a field which has been {owed in fmall grain I will be reaped in time to prepare it for Crowfoot Grafs; ( a Grafs that deferves the attention of the State of Georj gia, particularly in the lower country.
FAMILIES who have been many years fettled in this State, and thofe who are daily removing to it, are now beginning to find out that the Pine Lands poflefs many advantages which are not to be found in the Oak and Hickory Lands; from the lo-.ver part of Scriven, Bullock and Montgomery counties, where the gradual fwelling of the hills commences up to the line which I have men tioned as commencing eight miles above Augufta, which divides the Oak and Hickory from the Pine Lands, with the exception of two counties Burke and Jefferfon, which have a very confiderable quantity of Oak and

[ 19 J
Hickory Land, I can venture to aflert, that no part of the world ever enjoyed a greater mare of health, and I can even go farther and fay, that they enjoy Superior health to the inhabitants of the Oak and Hickory Land, and have better water; except on and near the River Stamps, which in all parts of America, and I believe the world, are unhealthy. Scriven county commences on Savannah River and runs to Ogechee River. Bullock county commences on Ogechee and runs to Canuchie River. Montgomery county commences on Canuchie and runs to the Alatamaha and Oconee Rivers. Thofe counties are joined by Burke and Wafhington counties, and together with part of Jefferfon, Richmond and the lower part of Columbia county, contain the Land be tween the lines I have mentioned, where health, good water, and a kind foil may be looked for. I am told that the upper part of Liberty and Glynn counties might be in cluded \ but I have not had the fame opportunity of making any remarks on thofe counties , my. bufinefs ne ver having led me to inveftigate them particularly: la pafling through them I have feen fome good Pine Land towards the upper line : 'tis a fa# that cannot be denied that there are three children in the Piney Wood cabins for two you'll find in the Oak and Hickory: This fhews a fuperiority of health. It will be contended that the children in many parts of the Piney Woods look un healthy, this cannot be denied and the reafon is obvious; in the firft fettlement of this State, the Rice Lands upon tide water near the fea coaft, were the only lands that were thought valuable, and the Pine Land adjoining them, was taken up by the firft fettlers for range, and to build on; thofe Lands are properly Ailed Pine Barren and from them, all the Pine Land has been improperly named.

[ 20
'<
Tne1 firft fettlements that were made in the Pine Woods; wept made by ftock keepers, whofe poverty or indolence induced them to hire themfelves to the oppulent planters as ftock keepers to take care of Cattle v thofe Catafe fupplied them with abundance of milk ; a few Potatoes was - all that they thought of raffing, for Corn they depended oft purchaie. This indolent life, together with the ufe of milk and Sweet-Potatoes produced that fallow complex ion and unhealthy appearance, which is even now in fome Situations to be found , milk and Sweet Potatoes are ve ry good diet, ufed in moderation, but when they are the principal food, they are the reverfe in all warm climates.
AFTER a few years thofe ftock keepers began to .make gardens, and fome, to make fields of Corn, the produce aftonifhed them, for they took them by their name, to 'be barren indeed. This will account for fo much of the land being vacant when the fpeculative mania commenced; becaufe it was fuppofed to pofiefs no value except as a range for cattle and hogs ; jn this they are exceeded by no country. The woods prefent a fcene new as it is ufeful and delightful; an extenfive foreft, covered with high grafs having all the appearance and the realitv of the advantage of a meadow, here the animals roam at large and are fit for the Butcher, nine months of the year and remain in good order during the winter feafon, withput any attention whatever.
To -aflat that the Pine Land is generally of more value ;than the Oak and Hickory Land throughout the Hate, would be bring fight of that candor, which in this publication I have determined to keep always in view, fiat as I have before ftatefl I now repeat, that the Pine ' Land is equal m quality, and wiH produce crops of any

41 J

kind that are planted on it (Tobacco, Indigo and Hemp

excepted) with the fecond quality of Oak and Hickory *

and that it is fuperior to the third quality for any crop

whatever. The firft quality, and a great portion of the

fecond quality are generally fettled, and where they arc

not,' they cannot be purchafed even on the Frontiers for

lefs than four or five dollars per acre, and then, in moft

inftances, you rauft pay the whole ; but always a part in

hand. The third quality far diftarit from navigation i*

furely unprofitable to the poor Emigrant^ particularly tf

purchafed on a credit. Prom Pine Land more may ba

made, and the purchase money not more than one fourth*

betides the advantage of fine range i add to this, that the

Pine Land is generally near navigation where every thing

may be fold; where the Pine knots may be turned into

Pitch and Tar -, Turpentine extracted from the trees, and

the trees afterwards cut into ranging timber. While

floating down thofe articles to market, your crop of Cotton,

your Poultry, or any thing you have to fpare, can be car

ried without expence, and a high price always obtained. -

i NATURE has no where been fb laviifh in her bounties

as in this ftate 5 a man without a farthing, poflefling but

common induftry, can here procure himfelf a comfortable

home, on eaner terms and for lefs labour, than in any

country in the civilized world. What a pity it is ? fhat

large families, who live on poor worn but land m "the

Northern ftates and in Europe, mould lofe fuch an oppot*

tum'ty as now.prefents itfelf, for procuring Land for their

children , many toiling from year to year to pay a heavy

rent, on poor miferable barren land. Here every man

*

AT.
may cultivate his own knd with the pleafing reflection

that it 'will defcend to his offspring. In this ftate there

C 2* ]
is no fuch thing as poverty, unlefs people bring it' oh themfelves by idlenefs and drunkennefs. Such people can live no where. I have now been here long enough to have traverfed the ftate many "times, and I have rarely ever feen a Beggar imploring charity; In fuch a country, it is, that a poor man can be happy. But even thofe who live in poverty in other ftates, ftartle at the idea of mov ing. What! leave my friends and relations to go to a new Country, and that fo far off, is the general cry. -Re flect for a moment on the difference between toiling to pay a heavy rent, and working for that whkh will footf be your own. In the firft place, there is a certainty of en tailing poverty on your family, which you may leave be hind you : In the other, that moft pleafing of all reflec tions, that you leave behind you a comfortable home for your family to ijoy. The great number of families which are daily moving to this ftate, fhew that people are beginning to think of themfelves inftead of friends and relations; and when I refleA that'my lands which are how a wHdernefs will foon aflume a different afpect, exhibit ing fmiling fields and comfortable Cottages ; and alfo reflect, that I have in fome degree contributed to place in fuch a fituation fo many of my fellow-citizens ; it will, independent of the advantages of the fale, give me a pleafure and fatisfaction which can only be felt by thofe who are in the habit of feeling pleafure, from feeing oth ers happy.
Governor Jackfon in his Meflage to both branches of the Legiflature, on the fourth day of November 1799, in fpeaking of an obfervation of the Commiffioners reipecting the line that has been run between the United States and the Spaniards, through the prefent Indian ter-

ritory--Says--<c It is faid that the lands through which " the boundary between us and Spain runs, and far above " it are of a poor piney quality ^ yet it may be doubted, " if the (jMnm.'flioners of the United States from whom " this information is faid to be derived are proper Judg" es of a Pine foil in a Southern climate. Among our* " felves it is well known that large tracts of this kind " of land, produce good crops of wheat and corn, and " anfwer very well for Cotton, an article which is ra" pidly advancing to the head of American Exports, and <f which (called Georgia Cotton) is taking the lead and " preference of that ftaple in moft foreign markets; a " ftaple which deferves the foftering hand of the Union, " and merits its attention and encouragement, Suppo" ling it therefore, Pine Land, it is neverthelefs of in" calculable value to the Union."
THE many frauds which have been committed in the fale of titles to large bodies of Land, which never exifted, and thofe bodies of Land which do really exift, held by people to the Northward and in many parts of Europe, is fo far as refpects population, truly a national misfor tune ; for the holder of them has either too much bufinefs of his own at home, to look after them in perfon, or determines to let them lay for his children, while others, from the uncertainty of title, and laying out of large fums of money paid for them, and daily paying in taxes are by no means willing to make other advances for mak ing fettlements on them, or to create a value by their encouragement. They generally begin to count the cofts of Agents, Surveyors, &c. and find themfelves going into an advance of ftill more money , beiides, this fpecies of property is riling every day, and in a few years to come,

J
will have attained ah additional value : thus maay of them argue. Some indeed have fent out Agents, but they are fent from the large Cities to the Commercial towns of this ftate, and generally oafs in the &3|e from Savannah to Augufta, where the road pafles as f before obferved, on a barren ridge, and from this they form an opinion of the value of all Pine Lands, which is not unfireqaentJy confirmed by perfons refiding in Savannah and Augufta, who perhaps have never travelled any oth er road,, than the Stage road between thofe Cities, and are perfectly unacquainted with the fituation of the coun try : thus from prejudice and the opinion of others their minds are improperly imprefled with regard to the value of property which they ought to have feen, and frequent ly go home with a good or bad tale .as circumftances may have given it to them.

A man who has been ufed to enjoy the luxuries of a

large City, don't like to fpend his time in the woods,

where the manners and cuftoms of the people do not

exactly correfpond with thofe he has left behind "him;

he finds, if he goes at all into the woods, only a hardy

race of freemen, whofe ^nly happinefs is procuring plen

ty, and making provifiori for a numerous family: this

fociety don't fuit him, and his ftay among them is no

longer than he can ride poft over tbe land, taking care

*-never to quit the main road.

'

*----

Owning large bodies of Pine Land in Warning-

ton, Montgomery, and Bullock Counties, my exertions

have been as great as an Individual's could be, to induce

Emigrants to thofe Counties. The Surveys I hold are

well known in this State, to have been the firft Land

that was furveyed in large tracts. Many families have

[ *5 3

removed on my lands from South and North-Carolina

/

and Virginia , but the Emigration has not been equal

(

to what is neceflary, to infure an immediate fettlement

{

of them.

J

THE fituation of the poor Inhabitants of Europe,

V

has for a long time excited the Commiferation of all

men of feeling, as one of the great family of mankind > I

have felt that kind of Commiferatio:i for their fuffer-

ings, which has led me into many plans for turning the

tide of Emigration to the Pine Lands of this State, in-

ftead of the large Cities, where mifery and ficknefs too

frequently await-them, and where property is hard to be

$.

obtained. Intereft and inclination have induced me to

'\

form many plans; but all have failed for want of active

f

resources to carry any exteniive one into effect, having

fV

always considered how much interefted the whole State

is in bringing about an object of this kind, to fettle the

\

lands laying above Savannah towards Ogecliee river,

where the gradual fwelling of the hills point out health,

a kind foil and good water.

THIS land commences about thirty miles above

\.

Savannah, and fome within twenty-five miles, which if

i

fettled by a hardy race of men, would furely be advanta

geous to the lower parts of the State. - Savannah mark-

' ' t *'

et would reap the advantage of their fefetlement, and

V..)

+*



/f

the lower Country would find an intereft, which no argU-

^ f'

ment of mine need be ufed to point out to them.

V

ALL the Land between Ogechce and Canuchee rivers, thence to the Ohoopee river, and thence to the Oconee and Altamaha Rivers, is held in large Surveys, and years would not effect a fettlement of them by the

t *6 J
X"
exertion of an Individual, if people cannot be brought from Europe. For an Individual to advance fifteen or twenty thoufand dollars a year to carry fuch an object into effect, is not to be expected , becaufe where a man has that income, he will hardly enter into the wide and troublefome field of exertion to better his fortune, already equal to his whiles.
THIS being the cafe, I have with the advice of a number of my friends formed a plan of emigra tion, which will enable me to bring about fifty fami lies a year, which may be fuppofed to contain in the aggregate, from two hundred to three hundred perfons, on thofe lands, befides thofe who will naturally follow, who have the means o> emigrating within themfelves, when once the cutfent of emigration is turned to the Southern ftates. And here I muft turn my attention to the fuffering poor of Europe, where mifery and wretcheduefs walk hand in hand ; where diflrefs and famine are making ravages even greater than war itfelf; where manufactures are almoft fufpended, and where the poor are willing to work for a morfel of bread to keep them felves from ftarving, and even, that cannot be obtainedWhat a contraft between the fuffering poor of that coun try and America, the World's beft bo$e! Here every man enjoys fouling plenty.
To provide a comfortable afylum for thofe whom. fortune has turned her back on, is the intention of the fol lowing plan of Emigration, which once commenced will be foon followed by thofe to whom fortune has been more kind, and who have the means of removal within themfelves. The tide of Emigration cnce- turned it will

f

not be diverted from its courfe by the rough blafts of the

,

irrhofpitable North, but will flow like a placid ftreara

j

to the mores of Georgia, and enrich our Land with thou-

fands of valuable Citizens.



V)

LAN '
OFAN ASSOCIATION,
For tlit Purpose of Encouraging the Immediate Settlement of the
PINE LANDS OF GEORGIA,
And to Promote the' same by EMIGRATIONS from EUROPE, and the NORTHERN STATES.
T - HIS Plan from its nature and extent, cannot be carried into eflkft by the exertions of an Individual, particularly one, whofe aclive refources are not equal to fuch an undertaking. It is therefore propofed by GEORGE SIB3A.LD, of Augufta, in the ftate of Georgia, to eftablifh a Company, for the purpofe of interefting In-
\
dividuals in the advantages of a large quantity of Land of which he is pofTefled, and of thereby encouraging the fettlement thereof, under the following articles of ASSQ^ CIA510N.
' ARTICLED THE faid Company fhall be known and ftiled, the GEORGIA ASTLUM COMPANY r-

' *' :

C ** -3

-.;: "---.-. ARTICLE II.

, | THE property upon which this plan is founded, - coafi&s of the following trails, bodies or parcels of Land,
- towit, One hundred and feven thoufand four hundred and five acres of Land, granted to Jofeph Ryan, lying in Bullock County.

Two hundred and twelve thoufand, four hundred and figty-hine acres, granted to Charles Ryan, lying in Bullock County.
SIXTY thoufand acres of Land granted to Francis Tennefle, lying in Montgomery County.
^-
OWE hundred and twelve 'thoufand, feven hundred acres, granted to Francis Tennelle, lying in Montgo mery County.

. THIRTY-ONE thoufand acres, granted to James Dawfon, lying in Montgomery County. Making in the whole, Five hundred and twenty-three tboufand> Jive bun~ dred and feventy-four acres.

j THE Lands granted to Jofeph Ryan and Charles 'Ryan, adjoin each other, and were the firft large furveys, that were made in Effingham County, and by a divifion i .': of'that County, now fall in Bullock County, they com' " mence near the head waters of the South Fork of Scull's Creelc, about thirty miles below Louisville, and run thence, at the^diftance of from two to five miles of Oge' chee river,; to within about thirty miles of the City of Savannah, taking m the head waters of Belcher's Millcreek, Stack Creek, &c. &c. thence acrofs to the mouth of Lett's Creek, where*jt empties into Canuchee, being

. &f** >

3
about thirty-five miles above the Town of Hardwick*' thence up the river Canuchee, to near the mouth of fif teen mile Creeks and thence acrofs to the head waters of Scull's Creek before mentioned, including all the waters of great and little Lett's Creek, four mile Creek, ten mile Creek, and many other valuable water courfes.
THE Land granted to Francis Tennelle, Efq. was furveyed in Washington County, and by adivifion of faid County, now falls into Montgomery j when Mr. Tennelle run this land he was furveyor of that County, of courfc had an opportunity of felecting land, the fituation and fafety of which muft have been better known to him than any ot!;er perfon. The tract of fixty thoufand acres lies on the eaft fide of the Ohoopie, adjoining the trad on which Zachariah Cox, Efq. built the mills, known by the name of the Ohoopie Mills : The other tract granted to Mr. Tennelle, lays onthefouth fide of the Ohoopie Mill tract, and runs thence towards the Altamaha, near where the Oconee and Oakmulgee form a junction, thence run ning up the Oconee river, back of the river furveys td Stalling's Bluff, and thence acrofs to the Mill Tract.
THE thirty-one thoufand acres granted to James Dawfon, lies on the tipper line of the Ohoopie Mill tract; Pendleton's Creek runs through this tract, and Tiger Creek, including its waters. Five hundred tboufand acres of this Land compofe the property of this Company, va lued at an half dollar per acre amounts to, two^hundred and fifty tboufand dollars.
ARTICLE III.
THE faid property which cbmpofes the Capital Stock of this Compatfy, is divided into Two tboufand fiv9

f 30
hundred Shares of one hundred dollars each, payable as fol-* lows, towit, Ven Dollars upon iffuing the following Cer-'
and the balance as therein ftated,

THESE are to certify that A. B. or bearer is entitled to one fhare in the Georgia Asylum Company-, being two hundred acres of Land, that is, the one twenty-five hun dredth part of five hundred thoufand acres of Land, being the Capital Stock of faid Company, fubject to the refervations of fettlement that are contained in the Articles of AfTociation ; upon which fhare the fum of ten dollars has been paid , one other payment of fame amount to be paid on the firft of December 1802, and the remainder in annual payments on the firft day of December 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809 anc* 1810, which payments when made, mall be receipted for on the back of this Certificate, and will entitle the bearer to a full fhare "in this Company, but he will forfeit "all his right, title or interefl in faid Company, and property thereof to George Sibbald, his Heirs Executors, Adminiftrators or Affigns, and to all payments made, if he mould fail in making payment of either of the feveral fums as they become due, or within ten days thereafter.

Witnefs my Hand,

GEORGE SIBBALD.

\

AUGUSTA, GEORGIA, l8oi.

-

ARTICLE IV.
To fecure the refpective fhare holders in their intereft, which they may hold In this Company, and to prevent unnecefTary trouble being impofed on the Tritf-

._._.
tees herein named, the land is conveyed In fruft to KtononCble John MiMedge, ^George Walker, Seaborn Jones and William M. Cowles, Efquires, who haveluhdly tindeffolcen'to aft, ancf to receive the titles under a fpecial truft, to enable George Sibbato, to convey to&tf refpeciive '(hare holders Or purc&afers, the quantity of acres mentidned in their Certificates, or to which they
are entitled, on their complying with tne terms in the -articles of this Aflbciatiori, ~ " .

A

1C L V.

THE {aid Tnifte^s (hall :af>ponit an agent to upon the fend, who "fliarf rfecelvij art aiinual ftrni for hi* fdryficts, and 6eorge Sibbald engages to pay the fame,-and tS adt (with the approbation 4of the Truftees) as fupcrmtendant of the afTairs of the Company as far as refaieVtb the promoting and ertcduragmg Emigration, and to make an advance of atlcaft one half thefums that are annually! received on the payment of fhares, in bringing over Emigrants from - Europe or the Northern Hates, to fettle on the Land* for which purpose he engages ta keep one good Ship or Brig of at leaft two hundred tons burthen, which he obliges himfclf to fend once a year to Europe or the Northern ftates, for the purpofe of bringing over families, to commence in the year 1 862, and end in the year 1810, and to land them between the fifteenth of Odober and the fifteenth of December* in each year : He will go as often to Europe as mall be judged neceflary, and make frequent tours to other ftates, in order to induce Emigrations therefrom. This plan is not intended to be fixed from any one country j but from feveral parts of Europe, in order o turn the Emigration of vari ous nations to this date. -

agent of the Company {hall caufe to be built uoder the direction of the ibperintendaat ofthe1 Company,. fifty ~;lf>g houies per ? annum, and have twenty acres of
, cleared round each houfe by killing the trees, in that th& Emigrants may be placed thereon immedi ately 0n thfir. arrival , the expence of, which, will be paid

by .Ge^ge Sibbald.



ARTICLE YII.

AN office (hall be kept in the City of Augufta, or

Savannah, as the Truftees may direct, and a perfon ap

pointed by them to keep jureguiar fet of books--aad a

f T . L . . 4. .

.... '*. - .W

_ j . .> .. . ^

4.

record of ail the proceedings of the Company agent and

fuperintendant, who are to furnifh annual ftatements for

that purpofe, fupported by proper vouchers, which perfon

i$ to be paid by George Sibbald ; and all advances that

are necei&ry for taxes, &c. are to be .paid by him, and

proper receipts annually filed in the office.

.-; -

A R f.J-C.L E VIII.

-. * :To encourage the fettiement of the knd, George

Sibbaki engages to build Within one year a Saw-Mill,

Grift-Mill, Cotton machine, Bfaddmith's ihop, &c. this

ftaH'be done as near the centre of the Land as convenient,

for which purpofe he referves ten tkoufandacres of Land,

]?cing port of the furplus Land over and above the Jive

bmdnd tboufond acres which compoie the ftock of this

'

ARTICLE IX.

THE balance of the furplus land mail be appropria

ted as follows : To the County of Bulloch, for the pur

pofe oflaying out a Town for their feat of juftice, two hun

dred acre* of Land. The agent of the Company provided

r 33
he condu&s the affairs of the Company to the fatisfactioti of the Truftees, for the term of ten years-, that is to fay, until the year 1810, or the fales of the land are com pleted, -mall receive in fee fimple five thbufand acres of land as a reward for his faithful fervices \ but fhould hex die previous to that time while in the fervice of the Com pany, one batfth&t amount mall be given to his family (if he has any) divided in equal proportions between his wife and children; and the other half to his fucceflbr. The balance of the furplus land mall be given as fol lows : to thefirft Minifter of the Gofpel of any religious fed:, fociety or denomination whatever, who mail remove on the land and preach the Gofpel, one thoufand acres of land in fee fimple ; to every other Minifter of any fed or denomination whatever, who removes on the land and will preach the Gofpel, and undertake to keep a fchool for the inftruclion of youth, five hundred acres of Land ; provided they mall not fettle nearer than within five miles of each other, and mall remove on the land before the year 1805, and remain there and fulfil the duties required until the year 181 o; they mall then produce a Certificate of their having redded on the land, and that they have preached the Gofpel and inftrucled youth, and have in all things conducted themfelves both by precept and ex ample in teaching and enforcing moral principles. Such Certificate figned by any two Magiftrates will entitle them to a fee fimple title to their land, as far as the amount of the furplus land, which is feven thoufand five hundred and feventy-four acres, which is to be given for this purpofe in trads of five hundred acres.
ARTICLE X.
To thofe who mall have the means of Migrating to this country, and will fettle immediately on the Land,
-*
.U*

C 34
Land will be fold on a credit of one, two, three, four and five years, upon condition that they mall build a good Jog houfe at leaft twenty by fixteen feet; clear at leaft twenty acres of Land and plant at leaft two hundred peach and apple trees. Until the firft of January 1804, no more than an half dollar per acre will be charged, fucK perfons as fhall actually fettle thereon; after that time until the year 1806, the price fhall not exceed threefourths of a dollar per acre, and from that until the year 1808, one dollar per acre, and from that period to the year 1810, not exceeding two dollars per acre.
ARTICLE XI.
FAMILIES and fingle perfons emigrating from Eu rope, who cannot pay their paffage, mail come under en gagements to ferve the Company a term not exceeding the following, to wit:
ALL perfons of the age of nineteen years and up wards, not exceeding the term of five years, and if under that age, not longer than they mall attafn the age of twen ty-four years, and if at the age of fourteen years or under, not longer than they mail attain the age of twenty-one years. Each family mall be placed on a tract of land equal to fifty acres for each perfon in family, and where there are Emigrants who have* no family, they fhall be placed as follows : All females fhall be placed with fome family with whom they have emigrated, and all fingle men in families of fix perfons. Upon tracts upon which a family mail be placed, there fhall be built a good and comfortable log houfe previous to their arrival, and they fhall be furnifhed with provifions for fix months, and plantation utenfils, &c. as follows:

35
FOUR bufliels of meal per month, for fix months, for every four perfons , two hundred pounds of beef and one buflie! of fait for fix months, for four perfons.
ONE Cow and Calf, one Ox, one Plough, two Axes, two Hoes, two Spades, three Pigs--and fucb Seeds as are convenient and necejjary for each family.
FOR the firft year, they mall enjoy all the advantages of their labour, after which they fhall plant four acres in Cotton for each perfon in family at or above the age of fourteen, for four years, and fhould they deliver to the Agent of the Company one thoufand pounds weight of Cotton in the feed a year, for four years for each per fon in family, above fourteen years of age, they mall have a difcharge for their time of fervice, for their paflage and for all the advance as above ftated, that mail be made them, and receive an actual and fee fimple title to fifty acres of Land to each perfon in family, of fourteen years of age or upwards, as above ftated; and in order to pre vent difputes as to whom the Land fhall belong where the Cabin is built and round which they have cultivated, it is to be known and understood, that the head of the fami ly is to have the improvements and the adjoining Land> towit, fifty acres for himfelf and fifty acres for his wife, if he has any, and the Ox and the Plough. The other articles then on hand, the Cattle, Hogs and increafe fhall be fairly divided between the family fhare and /hare alike , and where any female has been placed in the fami ly, me is to be confidered in the Diftribution, the fame.as the children: And when there is no family where fingle men are placed together, the Eldeft is to be known as the fuperior, and refpected as the head of the family, and is to have the Cabin and the fifty acres of Land adjoining,

C.
which thty have cultivated, and the Ox and the Plough ; the other articles to be equally divided as aforefaid. So foon as each family has delivered the quantity of Cotton, that is ftipulated, they mall apply to the Agent for a cer tificate, and on producing one in the following words to the fuperintendant, he mall caufe titles to be made out and delivered to them.
CERTIFICATE.
/ A, B9 Agent of the GEORGIA ASYLUM COMPANY, do hereby certify, tbat I lave received of C. D. four thousand pounds of Seed Cotton, which is in full for bis, or her passage, and entitles him, or her to a deed in Fee Simple for fifty acres of Land, witness my hand.
A. B. Agent.
ARTICLE XII.
As the fuperiatendance of this Plan of Emigration, is ftipulated to commence in the year 1862 and to end in the year iSio-, It is underftood that the affairs of the Company mall be clofed in one year thereafter, in the fol lowing manner, towit, all the lands then remaining on hand mail be laid off in Lots not exceeding five hundred acres, and be fold as follows. All the lands in Bullock County, on the firft day of November 1811, and thofe in Montgomery, on the firft day of December, thereafter, of which fale, and place of fale, at leaft fix months notice (hall be given in all the Gazettes of the State, and the land fold on a credit of one, two, three, four and five years, the purchafers giving a Mortgage on the land as fecurity for the payment of the purchafe money.
ARTICLE XIII.
EACH Subfcriber of a {hare, may remove on the

C 37 3
Land or fend a family of four perfons, to whom a deed for two hundred acres of Land will be^given, upon the payments being completed; but this will not be done except in cafe of actual fettlement, either by the ihare holders or fuch family as they may fend forward, and this muft be done on or before the firft day of January 1804, as the intention of this plan is to fettle the Land at all events, Upon producing a certificate with all the payments received thereon, nothing more will be required of the holder of fuch certificate, and he will thereby relinquim all his right and title to the property of the Company or the advantages thereof, receiving in full for the one hundred dollars he (hall have paid, a fee fimple title to two hundred acres of Land, but when a perfpn holds more than one and not exceeding five mares, he mall only be obliged to make one fettlement; pro vided that he mail cultivate twenty acres for each mare he may hold, and the Land be laid off in one tract.
ARTICLE XIV.
FAMILIES Emigrating from the Northern States,' who may have the means of laying in their provifions and providing for themfelves after their arrival, mall re ceive land upon the terms ftipulated in the tenth article, and mail be provided with a paflage and conveyance for their houfehold furniture, provision, plantation utenfils, &c. upon moderate terms, and the like time allowed them to pay for the fame as is allowed for the payment of their lands, giving bond upon their embarkation for the amount, with a certain penalty in cafe they mould leave the fettlement. This is only done to bind the idle, the hardworking, labouring hubandman, will not be inclined to roam from a comfortable home.

I 38 )
'ARTICLE XV.
ALL payments made to the agent, mall be paid over to the Truftees only, who mail appoint from among themfelves a Treafurer, and an annual fum mail be paid to each mare holder ariling from the monies received. George Sibbald mall furnifh the Truftees with annual ftatements of the fums he mall advance agreeably to the fifth article, and after the affairs of the Company mall be clofed, and the original amount of each mare paid to the mare holders, the payment mill then be made to George Sibbald for the actual amount of his advances, which (hall be fupported by proper documents to the fatisfaction of the Truftees. As foon as George Sibbald has been paid his advances, the fums afterwards received to be paid to the fiiare holders.
ARTICLE XVI.
IN order to enfure the advance of at leaft one half the fum paid by the mare holders annually, agreeably to the fifth article, and of all things which George Sibbald has ftipulated to perform, he has mortgaged to the Truf tees, property valued at double that amount, which will remain thus mortgaged, until the year 1810.
ARTICLE XVIL
AT the expiration of the year one thoufand, eight hundred and ten, the Truftees mall clofe the accounts of the company, ftating the fums due, money on hand, and fums advanced by George Sibbald, and mould they be of opinion that all things have been complied with on the part of George Sibbald, which he has ftipulated to per form, they mall certify the fame and he will then be clear of his engagements to the GEORGIA ASYLUM COMPANY.

A GEOGRAPHICAL
SKETCH OF GEORGIA.
TO which is added a comparative statement of our Popu lation in 1791, and 1801.--Also^ a comparative view of our Exports of 1791 and 1800. JPitb rcspeft to the Latitudes which I have mentioned, I must beg leave to remark that from the short time I have had to complete this Sketch^ I have had no opportunity to take them from aftual observation ; but from the best information I can collett^ they arc accurate*

GEORGIA,

SITUATION, EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES.

Mi Ift.

Degrees.

Length 600? tj

J 5 and 16 Weft Longitude from Philadelphia

Breadth 250 j DClween ) 3 i and 3$ North Latitude.

BOUNDED on the North by South-Carolina and Tenneflee; on the Eaft by the Atlantic Ocean i on the South by Eaft and Weft Floridas, and on the Weft by the river Miffiflippi.

THE prefent temporary lines, limits or fettled boundaries are as follow : Beginning at the mouth of Savan nah river and running up the North fide thereof, to the confluence of the rivers Tugalo and Keowee, including all the Iflands within the fame, thence up the moft Northern ftream of the faid river Tugalo till it interfects the Nor thern boundary line of South-Carolina; from thence to

[ 40 ]
the top of the Currahee Mountain; thence to the head or fource of the moft Southern ftream of the Oconee river, called by the white people Appalachie, and by the Indians Tulapocka, including all the waters of the fame ; thence down the faid river to the main ftream of the Oconee riv er, thence down the fame to the confluence of the Oconee and Oakraulgee, where it takes the name of Alatamaha ; thence down the fame to near the mouth of Phinholloway's creek, being the Weftern boundary of Glynn County, running with the faid line till it interfe&s the line of Camden County j thence with the Weftern line of faid County to St. Mary's river; thence down the fame to the Atlantic Ocean ; thence to the mouth of Savannah river, including all the Iflands on the Sea Coaft.
UPON the firft fettlement of this country the land was divided into diftricts or divifions j which, by an adt bearing date the fifteenth of March 1758, were divided and conftituted into eight parifhes, towit:
Chrift Church, St. Matthew, St. George, St. Paul, St. Philip, St. John, St. Andrew and St. James.
BY a proclamation of 176*3, and a commiiTion to Governor Wright in 1764, the land on the South fide of the river Alatamaha, and thence to the river St. Mary's, was added to the then province of Georgia, and laid off into Parishes, by an ad bearing date the 25th March j 765; as follows, towit :
St. David, St. Patrick, St. Thomas and St. Mary Js.
Br the Conftitution of this State of the 5th Febru ary 1777, the aforefaid pari/hes were made into Counties, towit:

E 41 1
THE Partih of St. Paul to be known as the County of Richmond.
ST. George--as the County of Burke. ST. Matthew and the upper part of St. Philip, above Canuchec, as the County of Effinghanv CHRIST Church and the lower part of St. Philip below Canuchee, as the County of Chatham. ST. John, St. Andrew and St. James, to be known as the County of Liberty. ST. David and St. Patrick, to be known as the County of Glynn. St. Thomas and St. Marys, to be known as the County of Camden.
AND certain land north of the Qgechee, ceded in the year 1773, and known by the name of the ceded land to form another County and be known by the name of Wilkes. By an act of the Legiflature bearing date the 25th February 1784, two Counties were added to this State, and called Franklin and Wafhington. By an act of Affembly bearing date the $d February 1786, a County was taken from the upper part of Washington County and called Greene. Thofe eleven Counties comprehended the whole of the State of Georgia, within its fettled limits or temporary line when the cenfus of 1791 was taken, at which time the population was as follows:

O
? Counties.

Towns.

"3 -^5

6? I 5"
? *2

6^
V-- .- fc*
$c

!^ *t>* > g 5 v. -^



u <
gJfc^" <O*-

U3 w

w

U.

^
O

b Cam-en St. Mary's

Si 44 96 *4

GJynn -i Liberty

Brunfwick Sunbury

7C 426 264 613

5

5 Chatham Sivanoah

846 480 II3O lia

(_Effingham Ebcnezer

627 336 7"

2
?b'

Richmond Augufta

Burke

Wayneftoro'

Wafhingten

1894 19840"8

1925 1841 1024.

3343 3415 1885

c ' Wjikes

Wafhinfton 5152 6740 I2I&D

39 .u
2
180

b Franklin Carnefville

47

Greene

Grctnfboro' IO27 ZIII 1882

8

JS.

ei

Total

1
w

*o g of each
^o

8 Diftrift

H

70 305 ^

21$ 4 T 3 1

4025

750 14047*649 y1
4116 11317)

239*

694 455*) 7268 31500)

1377 5405)

lot*]. 13103 14044 <739 39* 29264 TrHal. 82,548

C , 42 ]
SINCE the cenfus of 1791, the following alteration of Counties by divifions and fub-divifions have taken place.

Columbia. Taken from the upper part of Rich mond by aft of 1790--cenfus taken before the divulon took place.
Elbert. Taken from the county of Wilkes by aft of 1790--cenfus taken before the diviliontook place.
Hancock. Taken from the counties of Washington and Greene by aft of 1793.
M'lntosb. Taken from the county of Liberty by aft of 1793.
Eryan. Taken from Chatham by aft of 1793-- and part of Effingham added by aft of 1794.
Montgomery. Taken from the lower or Eaftern part of Wafhington by an aft of 1793.
Warren 6? Oglttborpe. Taken from Wilkes, Greene, Waihington, &c. by aft of 1793.
Scriven. Taken from the counties of Burke and Effingham by aft of 1793.
Bullock. Taken from the counties of Scriven and Bryan by aft of 1796".
Jefferson. Taken from the counties of Burke and Warren by aft of 1796.
Jackson. Taken from the county of Franklin by aft of 1796.
Lincoln. Taken from the county of Wilkes by aft of 1796.

[ 43 3
THIS State is divided into three Judicial Diftric]ts-- viz. The Eaftern; the Middle and the Wefternj which are compofed of the following Counties :

EASTERN DISTRICT.

Camden* M'lntosb, Bryan* Effingham*

Glynn, liberty* Bullock* Chatham.

MIDDLE DISTRICT.

Columbia* Burke* Jefferson* Washington*

Richmond* Scriven* Montgomery* Warren.

WESTERN DISTRICT.

Hancock* Ogletborpe* Franklin* Lincoln*

Greens* Jackson* Elhrt* Wifkes.

THE foregoing Counties which now by divi/ions and fub-diviiions compoib the fettled limits of our State, have been thus particularly defcribed in order to ihew the iituation of Land, which may have been originally grant ed in one County, and now falls into others by divisions having been made; and to mew that although our popu lation has nearly doubled, it is without any acquisition of territory. As will be feen by the following enumer-

ation.

t
CENSUS 1801;

Counties.
Camdtn.
4^t
S J WlvtVtkf
3 J Liberty,
w By**,
i Bulitcit ? Effingham, . Chatham, ^ [Colombia, \ Rickitond) ^ Buriz, 2 J SfrrvtM, ~l Jeff***,
Muttgomtry, "** rf ttnUgftBj
1- frarre*, . Hartcxi,
Grew,
w
Oglttbrte, 5 J Jaeko*, g Franklin^ Elbtrt) ^ Lincoln^
^mikei.

Fvhrite Maallegtolei> " '

aSo

u a -^

496
^445
460 762 286 871 716 2077 2848 1503 335 6 1253 2066 ^445
3739 3263 5205 3716
3479 3266 3078 3709 1745 4184
53968

' 440 IO

334 3
IO

584 27

242

2

758 15

594 1596 224

2473 16

1225 3167

* 5144

IOOO \

11924972 3442

34 3 45 *

2989 19

43438010
3207

16 7

3062

23851446

8 23

31858418

7 63

48293 IOIQ

"I
*
Jl
-ES7?
735 1092 1819 3940 2306 296 762 949 3008 2691 2969
766 1642
435 2668 2058 4835 36 57 5089 1400
959 2816 H33 5008
59406

"s CC

?
1681"
1874 2660 ,
*

^^Q iL ^j |

* wJ

1913 2072 i 2946 -

83451 5473 9506

5684 / 5 3) 3
3180 10300
81?9 :

10761 9780 67875396 ir -7-7,5-5- 5c
10094 4766 13*03,

162686 Total

SUMMARY OP REPRESENTATION.

Free White Males : Frte White Females : Other Free Perfbns i 3-5ths of 59,406 Staves

53,968 48,293
1,019 35^43

138,923 TOTAL to be Reprefented in the Congrefs of the United States--which entitles us to four ReprefentativeSj with a furplus of 6 29 3.

'[ 45 '<]
GEORGIA, being a frontier State, and at the firft firt* tlement only intended as a barrier to prote& South-Caro lina--A fliort hiftorical view cannot be uninterefting to thoie who may be induced fo become Citizens.
IN the year 1732, the fettlement of a new Colony Between the rivers Savannah, and Altamaha, was projec ted in England, for the further fecurity of Carolina, and alfo to gfant relief to poor and indigent families. For this ptfrpdfe ceYtain perforts applied to George 2d, and obtained tetters parent, bearing date June pth, 1732, for legally carrying into execution what they had projected. They called the new Province Georgia, in honor of the King. A corporation confining of twenty-one perfons, was conftituted by the name of Truftees, for fettling and eftablifliing the colony of Georgia. The Truftees having firft fet an example themfelves, by largely contributing towards the fcheme, undertook to foikit benefactions, and to apply the money towards clothing, arming and tranfporting fuch -poor people, as fhould confent to go over and begin a ietdement, and purchafing utenfils for them to cultivate the land. They however did not con* fine their views to the fubjeds of Britain j but generoufly opened a door for opprefled and indigent proteftants from other nations. About the middle of July, 1732, the Troftees fot Gedrgia, held their firft generabneeting, and in November following, one hundred and -fixfeen fettlcrs embarked at Gravefend for Georgia; hiring their pffage paid, and being furnifhed wkh neceiTary fupplies for building, and for -cultivating die foil James Ogletborpe, Efquire, one of the Truftees, an active promoter of the fetdement, embarked as die head and director of the fettlers. They arrived early in the year 1733, at Cbarlef-

[ 46 ]
ton, where they met with a friendly reception, from the Governor and Council.
MR. OGLETHORPE fhortly after his arrival, accom panied by William Bull, made a vifit to Georgia, and after examining the country, marked the fpot, where the City of Savannah now {lands, as the moft proper fituatiort upon which, to begin their fettlement. Here they erected a fmaJl fort and other neceflary accommodations. The people were fet to work in clearing the ground, and at fiated times were exercifed in military duty.
IN the mean time the Truftees for Georgia, had been employed in forming a plan of fettlement, and eftabliming fuch regulations as they judged moft proper, to anfwer the great end of the undertaking.

I FT this general plan, they confidered each Inhabi tant both a planter and a foldier, who muft be provided with arms and ammunition for defence, as well as with tools and plantation utenfils, for cultivation. As the ftrength of the province was the chief object, they agreed to eftablifli fuch tenures of land, as were moft favourable to a military eftablifhment: accordingly lands were grant ed upon feudal principles, and could defcend only to the heirs male; and in cafe the heirs male became extinct, the land reverted to the corporation. No man was per mitted to depart the province without licence. All for feitures for nonsrefidence, felonies, &c. went to the Truftees for the ufe of the colony. The ufe of negroes was abfblotely prohibited, and aifo the importation of rum. None of the colonifts were to be permitted to trade with the Indians, unlefs by a fpecial licence for that purpofe. Thefe were fome of the fundamental regulations, eftablifli-.

[ 47 3
ed by the Truftces of Georgia j and perhaps, the imagina tion of man, could fcarcely have invented a fyftera of rules, worfe adapted to the circumftances and fituation of the poor fettlers; and of more pernicious confequence to the future profperity of the province , yet although the Fruftees were greatly miftaken, with refpeft to their plan of fettlement, their intentions were truly benevolent.
/ BESIDES the large fums of money which the Trufttees had expended for the fettlement of Georgia; the parliament of England had alfo granted, during the two laft years, thirty-fix thoufand pounds fterling, towards carrying into execution, the humane purpofes of the cor poration , and after a reprefentation and memorial from the Legiflature of Carolina reached Britain, the nation confi lered Georgia to be of great confequence; and began to make more vigorous efforts, for its fpeedy pdjpulation.
AN hardy bold race of men, inured to rural labour and fatigue, were highly neceflary for enterprifes of this kind, To find men of this defcription, the Truftees turned their attention to Geri<^JB*#^&fp3jstvti the high lands of Scotland--and refolved to fend o^Vfr'**'-n' umber of Scotch and German labourers to their infant province. When the terms were known at Inverne% one hundred and thirty Highlanders immediately accepted them and were carried to Georgia. About the fame time, one hundred and feventy Germans embarked with James Oglethorpe. So that in the fpace of three years, Georgia received above four hundred Britifh fubjefts, and one hundred and feventy foreigners.
AFTERWARDS a number of adventurers, both from Scotland and Germany, followed their countrymen* and added further ftrength to the Province.

I

f 4* 3 HOWEVESL, notwithstanding all that Britain had

done for its population and improvement, it ftill remain

ed in a poor languishing condition. From the impolitic

reftriftions of the Truftees, thefe fettlers had no profpect

during life, but that of hardfhips and poverty; and of

coafequence at their difeafe, of bequeathing a number of

orphans to the care of Providence.

AT length the Truftees finding that profperiry was not likely to be the refult of their reguIations-^-furrendered their charter to the King in 1752--and Georgia was made a royal government. In confequence of which George zd appointed John Reynolds, Governor of the Pro vince, and a Legiilature fimilar to thofe in other Provinces. Governor Reynolds continued in office, for five years, and was fucceeded by Henry Ellis, who remained Governor until the year 1760. Under their adminiftratibns, the province began to flourifh, and its population, agricul ture and Commerce greatly encreafed.

AFTER the year 1763, the wifdom and exertions of Governor Wright ^MftA^ew fpring to induftry, and the province encreafej^M^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^fHep at rapidity. T__o form a right judgment of the*]p$|pws of the Colony, we need only attend to its expSrtSfr as follow :

Year

Vessels Yea;'

PI'S. Year

Pet.

1750
175'
1752
'753 '7>4 *755 1756

2004 3810 4841 6403 957
*v744 16,776

8 1758 8613 21 1766 81228 "f4

1 1 *759 126^4 i/ 1763 23852 23 1761 15870 41 i/6z 27021
V 1763 4755 1 42 1764 5>o*5

48 1767 67^92

37 1768 45 1769

922^4 86480

57 92

1770 1771

19096338837

"? 1772 121677

M4
186 18-
186 i5 217

.1757 *S>649 44 1765 73446 148

V'

1 <

C 49 J
FOR a number of years fucceeding the laft mention ed date, it is impoflible to give any accurate account of commercial tranfactions j indeed an almoft entire chafm prefents itfelf to our view : for the war commencing foon after, in which Georgia, was a great fufferer, threw every thing into a ftate of confufion. ,

THE amount of exports for one year commencing ift October, 1790, and ending on the 3<Dth September, 1791, was four hundred and ninety-one thoufand, four hundred feventy-two dollars and eighty-fix hundredths, and from ift October, 1792, to September 3Oth, 1793, five hundred and one thoufand, three hundred and eightythree dollars, at which laft mentioned date, the exports of the United States ftood as follow, by whicji it will be obferved that Georgia, ranked ninth in point of value.

Pennsylvania* Maryland, : Massachusetts, South-Carolina, Virginia, : New-Tork, : Connecticut, : Rhode-Island, Georgia, : North-Carolina, New-Hampshire, Delaware, : New-Jersey

3,687,119 3,676,412
770,239 616,416" 3 6337 198,197

26,011,788 Dollars.

[ 50 ]

EXPORTS for one Tear, ending 30^ September 1800, were as follow.

New-Tork, : Afaryland, : Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, South-Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, r Rhode-Island, CmmSticut, : North-Carolina, New- Hampshire, Delaware, : Vermont, New-Jersey,

14,045,079 12,264,331 11,949,679 11,326,876 10,663,510 4,430,689 2,174,268 1,322,945 1,114,743
769,799
418,695 57> 4i
: 2,289

70,971,780 Dollars.
FROM the laft mentioned ftatemenf^ it will appear that Georgia ranks seventh, in point of value. This is an un fair mode of ftating the value of the exports of the indi vidual ftates, particularly, of fhe ftate of Georgia. The ftates of New-York, Maryland, Pennfylvania, Maflachufetts and South-Carolina, have their amount of exports fwelled by means of an extenfiVe foreign commerce. This is not the cafe with Georgia. More than one half of her produce, goes to the beforementioned dates, in return for merchandize, with which we are "fupplied by them. For a ftate which has experienced luch an uninterrupted fcene of profperity, to permit other ftates, to import goods for her, muft appear ftrange to the enterprifing of the mercan tile world > but it is owing in a great degree, to the trade

[ 51 ]

pf the inland parts of the ftate, being confined to retailing

every fpecies of merchandize \ and a ftore cannot be fop-

plied with fuch an aflbrtment of goods as is neceflaty for

the confumption of our country, from any one port in Eu

rope. I confider this a fortunate circumftance, as by this

means, a proportion of the goods fold here, is of American

manufacture. Many of the Merchants go on annually to

the Northern States for their fupplies, and find it more

advantageous, to purchafe, the generality of their mer

chandize in the Northern States, than to import them direct

ly from Europe. Thofe who are extenfively engaged in trade,

import their European manufactures. Many hpufes in Au-

gufta, do bufiaefs on an extenfive fcale, and are extending

their views to the whokfale line, in order to furnifh the

ftatesof Tennefle and Kentucky, from which, many wag-

gons have already come. Our exports for ope. yar, as

has been feen, .were 2,174,268 dollars. Mr. Powel,

collector of the port of Savannah, informs me, that, our

. --

.

exports coaftwife, may be fairly ftated at fame amount.

Add to this, the exports from the Iflands and ports tq the

Southward, and we may be fairly placed above the ftate

|

of Virginia, which ranks sixth. This I am of opinion is

\

a juft ftatement, Virginia having the advantage of a great

'I

part of the produce of North-Carolina, and an extendve for-



eign trade, which I am perfuaded over-balances her pn>-

duce, which is fhipped to the Northern States. The

United States has, for fome time, had an almoft exclu-

live trade with the Spanifh Colonies, and from the con

tinuation of the European war, their ports have been

opened in the Weft-Indies and South-America, for almoft

every fpecies of merchandize. The ftate of Virginia,

particularly the port of Norfolk, has had her fhar.e of this

trade. That, together with the Eaft-India trade, has

' [ 5 3

fwelled the exports of the ports of New-York, Baltimore,;

Philadelphia, Bofton and Charlefton, to fuch an amount.

I am therefore fully of opinion, that the real amount of

\

the native production of the foil of either of the Northern

States, will fall fhort of the exports of Georgia. Mary

land obtains a great part of her exports from Virginia--

and Virginia from North-Carolina. Pennfylvania owes

a great part of her confequence to the ftates of Maryland,

Delaware and New-Jerfey. New-York to the Eaftern

part of Jeriey and Connecticut, and Boftorr to the ftates

of Connecticut, Rhode-Ifland and New-Hampfhire, while

all of them are benefited by the riches of the Southern

States. I think therefore, that South-Carolina, ought to

ranker/?, Georgia fecond, and this from a population of

only 162,686 inhabitants. Thus we find that our popu

lation has' not quite doubled, while our exports have ;n-

creafed nearly ten fold. This is owing to the culture of

that valuable plant, Cotton. When we look back to

what we were at the clofe of a deftru&ive war, when in

ten years we find our population within 2410 of being

doubled, we may fafely calculate on arriving at a degree

of refpeftability, which will place usfirjt on the lift, as

an agricultural and commercial ftate.- It is only fixty-

eight years fince pur firft fettlement, and there are many

of thofe fettlers now living, which will ferve among other

proofs of the healthinefs of our climate. Mr. Donald

M'lntom, came over to Georgia, in the year 1736, he

was born at Invernefs in Scotland, and embarked among

the firft Emigrants In the mip, Prince of Wales, Captain

George Dunbar, he died lately at the advanced age of 95.

When the error is exploded, that from our Southern filia

tion, we muft neceflarily be unhealthy, when it is known

*? A
[ 53 3
that we enjoy a fuperior degree of health, to the middle ftates, we may look for an increafe of inhabitants from every quarter of the Globe. We may reafonabljr expect to fee Towns and Cities rife in every direction, fee Convmerce un-.furl he- r canvafs, and waft our riches fr.om ever.y Creek and. river, to the fhores of Europe; the unculti vated woods transformed into rich fields, by the hand of induftry, and at fome future day, hear the gladdening fong of joy at gathering in the rich, heart-cheering juke of Bacchus ; that we may ftretch our population to the MilTiflippi, and finally overleap its ftreams, and help to people the lands, jeven as far as the Southern Ocean.
RIVERS.
THE principal rivers within the fettled limits of this ftate, are Savannah river, Little river. Broad river, Ogechee river, Canuchee, Alatamaha, Ohoopee, Appalachee, Oconee, Turtle, Great and Little Satilla,;and St. Mary's.
SAVANNAH RIVER, is navigable for mips of any burthen, as high as five fathom hole, a fafe and commodi ous harbour with good anchorage, three miles below the City of Savannah. Veflels of 250 Tons, can load and unload along fide of the wharfs of that City ; from thence to the City of Augufta, the river is navigated by Boats carrying from eighty to one hundred and twenty hogfheads of Tobacco, and from thirty to fifty bales of Cot ton, from thence to Peterlburgh, the navigation will only admit of Boats carrying ten to fifteen hogsheads of To bacco, owing, in a great meafure, to obftructions which might be removed at a fmall expence. The river from thence, might with an expence of two or three thoufand dollars, be made navigable for Botfs of the feme burthen,

r 54 i
as thofe that are ufed between Augufta and Peterfburgh, as high op as the confidence of the Tngalo and Kcowee. Its entrance which is called Tybee Bar, is in Latitude 51:57--here there are fixteen feet water at half tide.
BRIAR-CREEK, which from its fize and importance, ought to have a place among the rivers of the date, is navigable for fixty miles from its mouth to the Mills be longing to Seab.orn Jones, Eiquire, where he is conftructing a lock to permit boats and rafts to pafs. From the mouth ;to his Mills, the Creek is navigable for boats of the, fame burthen, as thofe navigating Savannah river from Augufta -, and for forty to fifty miles above, may with a fmall expence, be made navigable for fmall boats, carrying ten to twelve hogfheads. This Creek empties into Savannah river, feventy miles above Savannah.
LITTLE RIYER, is navigable for finall boats and rafts four miles, to the Mills belonging to Mr. Lamar 5 from thence to the Mills belonging to Jofeph Rae, the river is capable of being made navigable by means of jutties, formed with ftone, to bring the ftream into a fmaller compafs. Mr. Rae has offered to open the navigation at his own expence, for an exclufive right of navigating it fora certain time. It empties into Savannah river, twenty miles above Augufta, and is of great importance to the Irate, running through a thick fettled, fertile Country.
BROAD RIVER , empties into Savannah river, at the town of Peter/bugh* is a river of confiderable fize, and capable of Boat navigation for many miles. A plan is now on foot Co clear out the obftructions.
OGECHEE RIVER, has a fine and fafe entrance at OfTabaw Sound, and is "navigable, for vefTels of any bur-
lf

55 ]
tnen as high as Hardwick; from thence it is navigable for about twenty miles, for veffels of thirty to fifty tons j from thence to Louifville, it is navigated by Boats, car rying about fifty to fixty hogmeads of Tobacco j but owing to the Country on both fides of the river, being but thinJy fettled, the navigation has not been fufficient, to clear the river of the obftrudions of trees, which fre quently fall acrofs, and into the river. This will be remedied by the citizens of Louifville: They have built for the purpofe, a large boat, which went down the river in fafety, and went through the inland palTage to Savan nah, and is now on her return. It empties into the At lantic Ocean, about feventeen miles to the ibuthward of Savannah river.
CANUCHEE RIVER, takes its rife in Montgomery county, about twenty miles, S. E. from Louifville, and empties into Ogechee river, about twenty-five miles above the town of Hardwick : It is navigable for boats and rafts about twenty-five miles above the mouth, has a number of fine mill feats, and receives many tributary frreams, on which mills and machinary may be creeled to great advantage.
ALATAMAHA RIVER, has a fine entrance at St. Simons's found : It is navigable to Darien, for veflels of about 50 to 70 tons, and for fome miles above, and from thence, for rafts and boats of eighty to one hundred hogs heads burthen, as high as the confluence of the rivers Oconee and Oakmulgee -, from thence, boats of the fame burthen pafs up the Oconee river, as high as rock landing, near which two towns, Federalton and Montpellier, have been kid out, and a Tobacco Infpeftion eftablifhed at each. Great quantities of produce have already pafled

[ 56 ]

down the river to the towns of Frederica and Hamilton

on St. Simons. The eafy navigation of this river, the

Oconee and Oakmulgee, the latter of which, will at fome

future period, be added to this ftate, promifes a fource of

wealth, flowing down its majeftic ftream, which will

encreafe the confequence of Frederica or Hamilton, be

yond the power of calculation. Nothing can prevent the

growth of a large City upon that Ifland, but the cutting

a Canal from the Altamaha to Turtle river, the practica

bility of which, has never been queftioned. But in all

new Countries, the fpirit of enterprife is not fufficient for

undertakings of fuch magnitude : From this circumftance,

I am induced to believe, that the town of Frederica, or

the ne.w town of Hamilton, will attain a considerable

degree of inpcrtance, before fuch an object can be carried

into effect. And it is well known, that when once the

current of commerce has flown to a certain point, the

riches it produces, and the connections which are the con-

feqtTence, will make it difficult to turn the channel of

trade to another port. This river and its tributary

flreams are of more confequence than is generally known,

rifmg near the mountains brow, and flowing in majeftic

ftreams to the Ocean, through the moft fertile Coun

try that nature ever formed : In a fituation which, when

our territory is enlarged, by a purchafe of the land, to

wards our fouthera boundary, will be near the middle of

the ftate, from North to South : The State Univerfity

fixed near one of its ftreams; the opening a joad from

the head of thofe ftreams, to the ftate of Tenneflee; the

immenfe increafe of population and of wealth, which is

flowing in, upon its adjacent land, promife this river and

Its towns, an uncalculable degree of commercial impor

tance.

fc

t 57 }
APPALACHEE RIVER, the Southern Stream of the Oconee river, and the prefent temporary boundary of the State, falls into the main Oconee river, a few miles below the line of Greene and Jackfon Counties. There are feveral. branches of the Oconee, called the North Fork, Middle Fork, and Mulberry Fork, all of which unite and empty, into the Oconee river in Jackfon County.
OHOOPEE RIVER: This river rifes in Wafhington County, and runs through that and Montgomery County, and empties into the Alatamaha river above Beards Bluff, eighty miles above Darien. It is navigable for Boats and Rafts as high as the Mills, built by Zachariah Cox, Efq. which are fituated twenty miles from its mouth. It runs through a great extent of country has many fine Mill-Seats on it 2nd its tributary Streams, the principal of which are Pendletons, Swift and Tiger Creek?, which rife in Montgomery County, and the Little Ohoopee river, which rifes in Wafhington County.
TURTLE RIVER, is a noble river, and capable of navigation for veflels of any burthen, "to the town of Brunfwick, and mould the projected Canal be cut from the Alatamaha to this river, it will doubtlefs rife into very confiderable confequence.
THE RIVERS, Great and Little Satilla, are navigable for many miles from the Ocean.
ST. MARY'S RIVER, fo important from being our Southern boundary, beyond which, we cannot look for an acquisition of territory, is a noble river, navigable to the town of St. Mary's for vefTels of any burthen, and for fbme diftance above it. It empties into Amelia ' found in lattitude 30 44.
H

[ 58 J
ISLANDS, From St. Mary's river, to the river Savannah, there is a chain of Iflands, which feem as if placed there by nature as a protection to our coaft; they form a number of fafe and commodious harbours, with good anchorage, and have an inland navigation, between them and the main. The principal are Cumberland, a large Ifland, which forms one part of the entrance into St. Mary's river, and Amelia Ifland belonging to Spain, the other, through-Prince William found-,--Jekyls, St. Si mons, Sapello, St. Catharine's, Oflabaw, Warfaw, Skidaway, Wilmington, Tybee and White Marfh. Thofe Iflands produce immenfe quantities of black feed Cotton called Sea Ifland , were originally covered with live Oak. From them the timber for building our navy is procured.
PRINCIPAL ? O W N S.
SAVAV.VAH, which may be considered as our com mercial Capital, is fituated upon the fouth bank of Savan nah river, in latitude 32 5, feventeen miles from its mouth. It ftands on a high fandy BlufF, which is ele vated fifty feet above the water, is regularly built. The public buildings are, an elegant Exchange, Court-Hoiife, Goal, a Filature originally built for a filk manufactory, now ufed as an Academy, a Jews fynagogue, a Roman Catholic chapel, one Epifcopal church, one Lutheranmeeting houfe, two Prefbyterian meeting houfes, a Baptift meeting houfe, two market houfes, a Tobacco Infpection, &c. This City was incorporated by an act of tv:e Leg:flature, 1789, and is under the direction of a Mayor and AWermen, with extenfive powers. It is rifing into commercial confequence ; is the grand Empo rium of the ftate, through which the principal riches are Clipped, and at whicli all our imports are landed, Itf

[ 59
commercial confequence is greatly increafed from its Situ ation, having a fafe and convenient harbour, with an en trance equal to any in America ; near the Weft- Indies, and having an abundance of articles of the firft neceffity to the Iflands, always at command ; its navigation never inter rupted by ice, point it out, as the moft convenient port to the Southward, where veflels which are prevented returning home in the winter, from their rivers being blocked up with ice, can go for a cargo, in the time which would otherwife be loft, by laying in the Weft-Indies, where their vefiel's bottoms are not unfrequently injured by the worm, or if they attempt returning are frequently driven, off the coaft, and obliged to feek fhelter in our ports. The water is frefti at the City of Savannah, and poflefles all the good qualities of the Delaware and Thames.

THE following articles of the firft neceffity to

Weft-India Iflands, may always be obtained in abundance, / .

to wit, Indian Corn, Flour, Butter, Bacon, Hams, Ranging L~Jfj /\

Timber, Plank, Boards, Shingles, Staves and Heading, v ! .

Tar, Pitch, Turpentine, Live ftock,to wit, Cattle, Hogs,**'

\

Sheep, Goats, Poultry, &c. &c.

FOR the European markets, Sea Ifland and upland Cotton, Tobacco, Rice, Ranging timber, Pipe, Hogs, * head and Barrel ftaves, Beeswax, Peltry, Gfhfang, and Snake root, Live oak, red Cedar timber for fhip build ing, Mafts, Spars, &c. &c.

AUGUSTA, is fituated upon the South-weftern bank of Savannah river, Latitude 33 40, on a beautiful and extenfive plain. It is one hundred and twenty miles North weft of Savannah. The town is regularly laid

6o
out in ftreets,. crofting at right angles. The principal . ftreet called Broad-ftreet, running nearly Eaft and Weft, is a handfome, well built ftteet, one hundred and^fixtyfive feet wide, has a row of trees for nearly a mile on each fide : On this ftreet there are upwards of one hun dred ftores, filled with all the neceflary manufactures of the Northeraftatcs, of Europe, the Eaft and Weft-Indies. This City, in point of riches, is equal to any of the fame fize in the United States. The other ftreets are fixty-fix feet wide, except Greene-ftreet, which is one hundred feet wide. There are many handfome well built houfes on them. In the rear of the Town, a ftreet has been laid out three hundred feet wide, in the middle of which an Academy containing a center building forty-five by thirtyfix feet, and wings thirty-three by one hundred feet is now building. This building is ornamented with a Cu pola and may be faid to be the moft elegant building of the kind in the Southern States, it is intended to accom modate, one hundred and fifty Students. Upon a line with it, fronting another fquare, a Brick Building is now creeling for a Court-Houfe, upon a handfome and con venient plan.--This Street is intended to be ornamented with trees for a Public Walk. There are alfo a Church, Methodift Meeting-Houfe, a large Stone Goal, a MarketHoufe and two Warehoufes for the Infpedtion of Tobacco. No Town ever rofe into importance with fuch rapidity as this Town has. In the year 1785, on the fpot where the Town ftands, there were only ten houfes--there are now three hundred and four houfes, and it is faft encreafing in buildings, commerce, and every kind of improvement. It has the advantage of a moft beautiful fituation and enjoys a good climate, good water and is furrounded by fertile land. It will one day rife to a great degree of im*
n

r 6'
portance. It was incorporated by an ad on the Lcgiflature, January 31 ft, 1798.
HARRISBURG, a Town about two miles above Augufta, has a Warehoufe for the Infpe&ion of To bacco, is oppofite to the town of Campbellton, in South-Carolina, and will probably at fome fhort period, be connected with it by a bridge acrofs Savannah river. The banks on both fides are high.
t
LOUISVILLE, the temporary feat of government, is fituated upon an eminence near Ogeechee river, is a regu lar well planned town, forty miles S. S. W. from Auguta, has a number of good houfes, and being near the cen ter of the prefent boundaries of the ftate, enjoys a confiderable trade, moftly in Cotton. The public buildings, are a handfome, well built State-houfe of brick, built in the middle of a fquare, which is taftely enclofed with pailing, has four entrances, one fronting each ftreet, and is intended to be ornamented with trees, &c. The other buildings are a neat brick Academy, a Goal, &c. It is the feat of Juftice of Jefferfon county.
FEDERALTON, a town on the Oconee river, near the line of Wamington and Hancock, below Rock Land ing, has a Tobacco Infpection, and from its being fitu ated near the head of navigation for boats of fixty to one hundred hogmeads burthen, furrounded by a highly cul tivated country. It is probable it may become the grand Warehoufe, for the riches of the Weftern Frontiers, and that the trade of Tenneflee, will pafs to the Atlantic by the boats from that town, which now navigate the river, The river above, and many of its ftreams, may with a trifling expenfe be made navigable for Boats of ten to twelve hogfheads for many miles.

[ 62 ]
MOUNTPELLIER, a Town three miles above Fedeniton, the Rock Landing lies between thofe Towns--It enjoyes the fame advantages with Federalton and has a Tobacco Infpeftion.
WAYNESBOROUGH. The County Town of Burke County, has a Court-Houfe, Goal and Academy, is rifing into confequence as a Commercial. Town, being fitu ated in a very rich neighbourhood.
WARRENTON. The County Town of Warren County.
GEORGE-TOWN, fituated at the Falls or what are commonly called the Shoals of Ogechee, in Warren County.
SANDERSVILLE. The Seat of Juftice of Warnington County.
SPARTA. The Seat of Juftice of Hancock County.
GREENESBOROUGH. The Seat of Juftice of Greene County.
WASHINGTON, fifty miles Weftward of Augufta, is the Seat of Juftice of Wilkes County, is a neat well built Town, has many good houfes and Stores, and from being in a rich well cultivated Country is increafing ra pidly in wealth; it has a Court-Houfe, Goal and a Bandfome Brick Academy, an ornament to the Town and an honor to the County. Near this Town is a Spring, pofleffing many Medicinal qualities, and is reforted to by Invalids from many parts of the ftate.
PETERSBURG, in point of Situation and commercial confequence is fecond only to Augufta. It is fituated on

C 63 ]

a point of Land, formed by Broad river, where it empties into Savannah river; is a handfome well built Town and prefents to the view of the aftonifhed traveller, a Town which has rifen out of the Woods in a few years, as if by enchantment: It has two Warehoufes for the Infpe&ion of Tobacco: Is fifty miles North Weft from Augufta. On another point of Land on the oppofite fide.of Broad river is the Town of- Lincoln, which has an Infpe&ion for Tobacco, fome Stores, &c. On the oppofite fhore in South-Carolina, is the Town of Vienna, which has a number of houfes, Stores, a Tobacco InfpedHon, &c.

EDENBOROUGH, a Town fourteen miles above Perterfburg on a point formed by Cold Water Creek, where it empties into Savannah river, has a Tobacco Infpection, &c.

ELBERTON. The Seat of Juftice for Elbert County.





LEXINGTON. The Seat of Juftice of Oglethorpe County.

CARNESVILLE. The Seat of Juftice of Franklin County.

CLARKESBOROUGH. The Seat of Juftice of Jack-' fon County, has a good well built Court-Houfe, Goal, feveral Stores and houfes moftly occupied as Taverns.

UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA.--At a meeting of the Senatus Academicus at Louifville, on the 15th of June, 1801--It was Refolved--that the State Univerfity fhould be fixed in Jackfon County ; and a Committe, confifting of the Honorable George Walton, the Honorable John Milledge, the Honorable Abraham Baldwin, General John Twiggs and General Stewart, were appointed to

I

fix on the Site. Thofe Gentlemen after viewing every ntuation which was fuppofed eligible, fixed on a height near the North Fork of the Oconee river, commonly called the Cedar Shoals, which in point of fituatloh is ex celled by no part of that country. The hill is very high, has a fine commanding view of the furrounding country, and the North Fork of the Oconee full in view, has a fine Spring of Water near the top of the hill, and experi ence has proved Ft to be remarkably healthy. The Ho norable Mr. Milledge, purchafed the Land for one thoufand dollars and prefented it to the Univerfity. The Committee, then marked the Spot where the Buildings were to -be erected which they named ATHENS. The Univerfity is poflefled of ample funds and is under the direction of Jonah Meigs, Efq. late Profeflbr of Matheznadcks in Yale College Connecticut.
COLUMBIA, Montgomery and Bullock Counties, have no-Town* laid* out at their Seats of Juftice. A Law was jjafled the laft Legiflature, for laying out one in Bullock wunty. -At Colombia Court-Houfe there is an Academy.
JACKSON BURG. The County Town of Scriven County.
THERE are two Towns, or public and fafhionable places of refort in the Middle Diftridfc--Richmond Batb, about fourteen miles S. S. W. of Augufta and Jefferson Bath, S. W. of the former eleven miles diftant, and eighteen miles from Louifville; they are faid to poflefs many medicinal qualities. It is certain they are healthy-- and the Baths in point of convenience are excelled by none on the Continent. At Richmond Bath, there are two plunging and two ihower Baths--built in a fuperior ftile

f

of elegance, with convenient dreffing rooms, 6Yc. Jefierfon Bath has four plunging and two ihower Baths, well conftrufted, with dreffing rooms and private walks to the Baths: This Bath has had aftonifhing effects in reliev ing perfons afflicted with Rheumatic pains--they are both fituated in a high and healthy Country /unrounded by Pine [Woods,

HARDWICK, fituated near the mouth of Ogeechee river in Bryan County, the navigation being good and having an extenfive river, running through a fertile Country, bids fair to arrive at fome considerable degree of Importance.

SUNBURY, a fea port town in Liberty County, favoured with a fafe and convenient harbour, is a very pleafant, healthy place, and no doubt will be a port of commercial confequence : It is reforted to by many per fons, during the furnmer months5 it has an Academy under an able inftructor.

DARIEN, lies on the Alataraaha river, is a thriving town, and well fituated for the Weft-India trade for veffels of fifty to feventy tons, and has a Tobacco Infpection.

BRUNSWICK, the feat of juftice of Glynn County, lies in latitude 31 10, is fituated at the mouth of Turtle river, is regularly laid out, and it is probable, from its advantageous fituation, will one day rife into great com mercial confequence.

FREDERIC A, is a pleafantly fituated town on the

Ifland of St. Simons, latitude 31 15 North. The mouth

of the river Alatamaha, wafties the weftern fide of this

valuable Ifland, forms a Bay before the town, and Is na-

v'i*gable for veflcls of any burthen.'

'' '

[ 65 - J
HAMILTON, a town lately laid out on St. Simons, at Gafcin's^ Bluff, and to which, a great part of the pro duce of die Alatamaha and Oconee is carried, it has a fine harbour and promifes to be a place of considerable trade.
JEFFERSON, the feat of juftice of Camden County.
ST. MARY'S, in point of health, is exceeded by no Country, and from its fituation upon our Southern frontier bids fair to arrive at a great degree of commercial confequence. The river of that name, on which it is iihiated, is navigable for many miles above St. Mary's, for veffefs o'f any burthen. "
MANUFACTURERS and MECHANICS, are much wanted, and manied Capitalifts could no where employ their funds to fo much advantage as m this ft ate. The erection of Saw mills, Iron works, Grift mills for manu facturing wheat, which feldom exceeds one dollar per bumel, and weighs from fixty-five to feventy pounds; the erection of Paper mills, Cotton manufactures; in Tanning and manufacturing leather, &c. Brick makers, Brick layers, Carpenters, Stone mafons, Stone cutters, Mill ftone cutters, Mill wrights, Wheel wrights, Black fmiths, Shoe makers, Carriage makers, Saddlers, Harriefs miksrs, Cabinet makers and Coopers would all find employment: While the prefent lo'.v price of Land offers to the poorer clafs of mechanics an afylum, for a little labour, that would enable them to fpend the remain der bf their life in eafe and comfort. \
THIS ftate abounds with Iron Ore, particularly the Pine Woods. There are alfo black lead mines, coal mines, &c.
*
STONE for building is to be found in every part of

3
th' upper country. In the neighbourhood of Aughfta, there are four kinds of free ftotie, equal to any in the world. Mill ftones of the fame fpecies as the Cologne ftones, (but faid to be of a fuperior quality) are made in many of the upper counties. Oil ftones equal to the Turkey ftone, are to be had in abundance. Within a few miles of Aiigufta, there is a large bank of white Clay or Marie, now only ufed for white wafliing. Seven miles from Augufta, red and yellow Clay ufed as paint, is alfo to be had in great abundance.
THE moft remarkable curiofities, are the ancient fortifications, which are to be feen in many parts of the ftate; and the bank of petrified {hells, which commences at Savannah river, twenty-five miles below Augufta, and runs through Burke, Jdrerfon, Warren and Washington Counties, to the Oconee river. This bank of fheils ferves for various purpofes. It makes good lime for building, makes mill ftones fuperior to French Burr, and affords the Philofopher a rich variety of the frolicks of nature, in petrifactions as various as they are rare.
THE foreft trees are in the fame variety as in the other ftates, with the addition of the live Oak. As this tree is daily falling under the ax of the cultivator, it would have been well for the United Sates to have fecured Ibme of the land. We have an exotic, which feems, from its form, to have been intended by nature for ftiip timber; nothing could induce an opinion to the contrary, but its quick growth. This tree is called the Pride of India^ or vulgarly called China Tree: Its form, its foliage and its flower furpafs in beauty, all the trees of the foreft. It makes handfome furniture, fomewhat refembling the wood which is ufed in Cuba for fhip building, called Spanim
*'

[ 68
Cedar or Sptnim Mahogany. If this tree would anfwer the purpofes of Ship Timber (and I hope the experi ment will be made) in ten years growth they would anfwer for timber for Veflels, of one hundred to one hundred and twenty tons.
THE Pins of this ftate is of two fpecies, one of them differs from the Pine of the Northern States, has a long leaf and the wood is much more durable then the North ern Pine, is fuperior for any ufe except for mip fpars, for which purpofe it will not anfwer, being too heavy ; the other called ihort leaf, is only found intermixed with the oak and hickory. Thofe trees the growth of the Land, which led to this publication, was the firft to expe rience an arbitrary ac"fc of oppreffion by aft of the parlia ment of Great-Britain, prohibiting the cutting down Pine Trees, or what they called Pitch and Tar trees. This was the firft act that was complained of by the Colonifts.
WHEN the Emigrants mail land on our mores, and view the ftately Pines*, when Americans mail know that they are even in a remote degree, the caufe of American Independence, they ought in future to- venerate them as a fymbol of liberty. A ftately ftaff fupporting the verdant cap of freedom mould be our creft; and liberty, hippinefs and fmiling plenty, will I hope, attend every Emigrant, who may in any way be induced to remove to this country by my ftatement.
THIS Short Geographical Sketch was commenced at the felicitation of fome of my friends, who had read and approved my Plan of Emigration, and Notes on the Pine Land of Georgia.
I,

3
I HAVE had but a few days to accomplifh it, and when I inform my friends that it has been moftly compil ed from notes, which I have haftily made, iince my refidence in this State^ they will excufe the language in which it is written, when they find that the information now conveyed to them is, accurate.
ADVICE TO EUROPEAN EMIGRANTS. N. t
The Season for PLANTING and SOWING in this State is as follows:
W HEAT may be fown in Oftober, November a* December, Oats and Barley in February, Cotton, Indian Corn and Potatoes may be planted in March or April, Peafe, March to June, Garden Roots and Vegitables may be fown in every month of the y$ar. Emigrants ought to arrive here in the Fall or Winter, from about the I5th October to the firft February, by arriving at that feafon? they will have time to prepare their land and fow or plant a crop which they can reap immediate benefit from, at that feafon they can always find Waggons and Boats in the Sea Ports, by which they can be conveyed to any part of the State , in the Fall and Winter, provifions are plenty, which is not the cafe in Summer, as thofe who have provifions to fpare, generally carry it to market in the Spring when the rivers are high, this is attended with no inconvenience to thofe living in the State, as every body makes their own provifions, and there is no clafs cf people who depend on purchafing from day to day : having no Ice in our rivers in ahy Month, and the weather In Janu-

I 70 3
try being no colder than the Northern States and many parts of Europe in O ftober : Emigrants may approach oar coaft in fafety in any Month in the Winter without experienting cold, a tempeftuous Sea, or Ice ; whereas if diey land in Summer, they have every inconvenience to combat; this has" been feverely felt by the Enrgrants who have landed to the North .yard, where they either remain in Towns till their money is expended, or if they go into the Woods to begin afettlemsnt in Summer, are expofed to the heat of the Sun by day, and the dew by night, for forae time, before they can prepare a cabin to ihelter them.
CIRCULAR ADDRESS.
SHOULD the foregoing work, or any part tbereoj, attract tbe attention of any of the Printers in tbe United States, 'tis at tbeir service. My objeft bos hen to make it useful. I have therefore not secured tbe copy right. Self*interefted as I appear, I appeal to tbe candid and discerning Planter, to determine bow far my ftatements are accurate. In my notes and observa tions on tbe Pine Land, candor bas been my guide. My PUn of Emigration bas been carefully balanced by tbe scale of Juftice ; and trutb bas been my Pikt tbrougb my Geographical, descriptive and biftorical Jketcb of tbe

state: Supported by candor, justice and truth, what bavt I to fear ? Not the sneer of the sceptic, tbe ignorant, or tbe uninformed, who think of nothing beyond tbe business in which they are engaged, many of whom are no way attached to the soil they inhabit. Not tbe Miser ; not those whose penuriousness of soul would shrink from an aR of benevolence, and who therefore believe it impossible for a man to possess a sufficiency of humanity, to make him wish to serve his fellow-men. No, my object has been equally to serve myself, the State I live in, and tbt poor Emigrant, who may be driven to our shores--seek ing an asylum from the ills of life, tbe oppression of tbe old world, or tbe miseries of war, and its too frequent attendant famine. In doing this, I should think my la bour illy applied, if I conceived I had made a wilful mistatement of any thing in this work. I therefore shall close it, as I would wish to close my life, by reflecting, that 1 bad done some good, and bad never intentionally done evil. From tbe common lot of human nature, I may have erred, but I truft those who know me, will attribute all error to its proper source--'As for myself, I feel a consolation in tbe integrity of my intentions. '*
GEORGE SIBBALD.
AUGUSTA, GEORGIA, l8O.

Hjf AL.

MAY they prove by their good conduct, that they : are deferving of the comforts enjoyed by all ctafles in America ! Let flie happinefs they find the people in the enjoyment ofy be a leflbn to them, to te peaceable ancL
induftrious.
' DURING the late fefllon or the afTembly a law pafled to divide the county of Montgomery, from the eaftern part ofwhich, a county has betn made, and called TATTNALL in compliment to our prefent worthy Governor* This county commences at the mouth of Limeitone Creek on the Oconee River, thence in a direct line to the mouth of Wolf Creek on Great Canuchee, thence down Canue,hee to the mouth of Cedar Creek, thence keeping the late eftahliOned line between Liberty County and Nfctftgomery to the mouth of Beards Creek on the Alatanwlna, thence un the middle of the Alatamaha and Oconee to the beginning. The temporary feat of juftice is fixed at the Ohoopie mt]ls, which are near the center of the coun ty. The land contained in my Afylum plan, that when furveyed was in the county of Wamington, and by a divifion fell into Montgomery, now lies in the County of Tattnall. A law alfo pafied dividing the county of Jackfon, from the lo ver part of which, a county has been made and called Clarke". This throws Athens the feat of our Univerfity, into Clarke County. The prefent Court-houfe will be near the line dividing thofe counties, and is to He made ufe of for an Academy for the two.counties.
THE GodJcfs of Peace having once more ftretched forth her olive branch and relieved Europe from the hor rors of war, the inhabitants of the old world, can now without rifque or difficulty turn their attention to Ame rica, where peace, plenty and happinefs are always to be found, where frhe din of arms is almoft forgotten in the peaceful culture of fmiling fields, wl ere the only diftinction known is between the idle and the induftrious: the one always meeting thnt deferved contempt which poverty when brought on by indolence merits, while the other is fure (6 meet that refpecl: and confidence, which is due to honeft exertion. Let this be a warning to thofe who may wifh to emigrate to America. Let not the diflipated, the ^

city vagrant, or the idk farmer look for the bleflings ari-

* fing from plenty, or the refpect whicJi is fure to attend

* ~ honeft induftry. But to the induftrious poor, whether

labourer, farmer, or mechanic, the ftate of Georgia offers

an afylum which will bring them plenty and indepen

dence.

*

THE peace lately concluded in Europe, will by no

!

means operate generally in favour of the commerce of the

p

- United States. The mips of all nations can now navigate

f

the ocean in fafety, and will of courfe become the carriers

)

of their own produce and manufactures. The armies

being difbindtrd, they will return to the plough, and ftand

in need of no foreign aid to fupply their wants. In this

Situation, the United States can only look for a demand

for their provifions from the Weft-Indies, the Canary

Iflands, Portugal and Spain, which have always been in part

fupplied by us, particularly with flour, wheat, Indian corn,

rice, fi(h, &c. How favoured then will the Southern

States be, when they have the only articles for making re

mittances to Europe. Cctton cannot fall materially

irr price , the quantity we make is nothing, compared

with the encreafed demand, which the peace will occafion :

from its bulk too, it will give employment to a great

number of mips, and from the expences attending veflels

in time of a general peace being confiderably diminifhed,

and the inOarance Lflmed, the probable profit on cotton

rmifr, b- greater than formerly, when the freights and

infura'ice, were more than double to what they will foon

he. Our tobacco and lumber will give employment to a

great number of targe (hips. Thus favoured the planter

may look forward wich confidence to a fteady demand, as

men of capital will doubtlefs turn their attention to the

tfate of Georgia. Charlefton and Savannah being the two

largeft commercial cities of the three fouthernmoft (rates,

they will be confidered the general mart that muft fix the

prices ofcotton, and the only difference the planter will ex

perience, will be in the charges necefiary to convey it ro the

ieacoafl: for it is not the mercantile intereft of the Aate of

Georgia alone, will be the purchafers; but the European

merchants in every part of the union. And it is probable,

that

rr.inv ^

of the

minufafbursrs

of EuropI e

will obtain

their

regular fupplies by means of agents, fo that the plmferiitay confidently refy on obtaining a price for hisxfeftt^ttufetfrill not be governed by' the prices in the northern ftatesv but by the prices in Europe. The northern ftaftes^aviflg? a great number of fhips, and but few articles th*tr will *be wanted in Europe, the monied capitalifts wfll be obliged to turn their attention to the fouthern ftates to give em ployment to their fhipping. The ftate of Georgia, offers as ample a field for enterprize as any part of the world. Our forreftsare almoft untouched, except adjacent to Savan nah river; our inlets, our rivers, are navigable for fhips of almoft any burthen, and every fpecies of lumber and timber can be obtained fufficient to load the fhips of the United States for years to come. Our contiguity to the Weft-Indies, is another advantage which no other ftate can boaft of. Under thefe circumftances, Georgia may4confidently look forward for an extention of commerce, while that of the northern ftates muft decline, or be in a great degree dependant on the fouthern ftates for fupport. The Eaft and Weft-India trade, the whale fifhery and the fifhery on the banks of Newfoundland, will always give employ to a number of vefTels; but there will be a much greater number that muft look to us for employment. With pleafure then muft we anticipate, while we have fb much reafon to expect, fuch advantages as muft refult to us from the peace. An extention of commerce, of agricul ture and of riches, will foon place us firft on the lift in point of value of exports, as I anticipated in the original publica tion. Whilft we are expecting thefe advantages the ftate would do well to encourage the clearing out rivers, cutting canals, making roads and bridges, to give a fpring to commerce.
NOTWITHSTANDING this discouraging view of a neceflary decline of commerce rn the Northern States, that ' fame commercial enterprize that has for years paft cover ed the ocean with our flag, that has been greatly inftrumental in faving France in one inftance, and England, Scotland and Ireland in another from the horrors of famine, cannot lie idle, new fources of commercial aggrandizement will bereforted to, to give employment to their fhips j the pen I us of commerce which has enriched them notwith-

JbndSng the opprdHon, plunder and injuftice which the Belligerent powers have unmanly heaped on the unarmed fliips of a neutral power cannot Hhg want employment, if one ocean will not furnim it they will refort to ano ther, and old Neptune will foon again fee our flag waving throughout the navigable world
l- I
0
\
14
!t

O S T S C :R I -P "T. tL

H_ _AVING uftiered my Notes and \0bfervatlons
on the Fine Lands of Georgia' into the world" fohSe thongs'
paft, I waited with that anxiety which is natural on, fech j an occafion, particularly when intereft is at ifcake, fb anfwer. to my appeal to the candor of my coujitry tbe accuracy of the opinions and observations ccnta in my pamphlet. What pleafufe then fnuft feiblt to htfe,' to find, that the wcrk was not only well receiV6d,'Uut' met the decided approbation of every intelligent perfon who read it? Upon the Legislature commencing their late fefliori, I preferited the members compoiing bdth branches, with a pamphlet, which, i had thfi to find met their approbation, all viewing my plan of emigration, as productive of general gobd If carrted info effect, as every emigrant, that I lhall land, or that is in duced by my exertions to emigrate to the ftate, adds rich es to it. it is obvious, that in efFedling an undertaking fo extensive, the refources of an -individual,^hethcr-b? hw wealth or his wifdom, muft be inadequate. I fubjoin, therefore, with fatisfaftion, the proceedings of-tffe-IL^islature, on a petition prefented by me^at'tmcfe extending to me its aid, and exprefiing their approbation. - .
~ ' * " '~ K.

THE prayer of ray petition was, to ob&in aiu^ef^-

fion of th payment of all taxes due, or which fticuld be

come due on my lands, until the year 1 805. My petition

was referred to jhe committee on. finance, w'hot imafH-

moufly reported m my favour, and recommended the fol

lowing resolution, which received the approbation of bdth.

brandies of the Legiflature, and was fancliontd l?y fhe

executive ^

.

-

A-

..... ". ^

f

SfiNATE, ift DECEMBER, iSoi.
w THE committee on finance further report--the committee taking under confederation the petition of tc George Sibbald, artd viewing the matter as of the utt"c moil importance, and if carried into effect highly bene ficial, as tending to encreafe the wealth and population ct of the ftate, are of opinion he ought to receive the fottering aid of the Legislature, -and therefore recommend cc the following refolution :
" RESOLVED, that if George Sibbald does and (hall " within. twelve months from this day, leave the ftate for " the purpofe of bringing into the fame, emigrants for " JflttlemeUt, he be indulged with a fufpenfion of the piy*c/ent of any taxes, which are now due and owing by ** fctm to the ftate, or which may become due, and owing - ** until the meeting of the General Alterably in the year 1805.
' JOHN JONES, President of tbe Senate, pro tempbre.
'* Teste, WILLIAM ROBER.TSON, Secretary.
w In the houfe of Reprefentativcs, read and concurred,
* DAVID MERI WETHER, Spzzker.
fesle, HJNES HOLT, Clerk.
Executive "Department, +tb December, i8of. . Prefented and Approved of,
" JOSIAH TATTNALL, Junior, GOVERNOR.
*** ffjfgj GEORGE R. CLAYTON, Secretary."
THE obligation I owe to my country for this concur red refolution, cannot ever be forgotten, a*id 1 fhouki do inju&ce to my feelings, did I not record it with my publi cation, in order that the Emigrants, who may be landed on our ihores by ray exertions, may fee that they ftwe at debt of gratitude to the ftate of Georgia, for .a&fting la giving them a peaceful home,
i

Locations