Motorcycle operator manual (Atlanta, Ga.)

Collection:
Georgia Government Publications
Title:
Motorcycle operator manual (Atlanta, Ga.)
Motorcycle operator manual, Georgia
Georgia motorcycle operator manual
Creator:
Georgia Motorcycle Safety Program
Contributor to Resource:
National Public Services Research Institute (U.S.)
Motorcycle Safety Foundation
Publisher:
Atlanta, Ga. : Georgia Dept. of Public Safety, Motorcycle Safety Program, 1998
Date of Original:
1998
Subject:
Motorcycling--Georgia--Handbooks, manuals, etc
Location:
United States, Georgia, 32.75042, -83.50018
Medium:
state government records
Type:
Text
Format:
application/pdf
Description:
Based on a manual developed by the National Public Services Research Institute under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in cooperation with the Motorcycle Safety Foundation
Title from cover
Metadata URL:
http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/id:dlg_ggpd_y-ga-bs200-b-ps1-bm6-b1998
Digital Object URL:
http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/do:dlg_ggpd_y-ga-bs200-b-ps1-bm6-b1998
Language:
eng
Holding Institution:
University of Georgia. Map and Government Information Library
Rights:
Rights Statement information

Printing and Distrbution Courtesy of
GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY MOTORCYCLE SAFETY PROGRAM GEORGIA STATE PATROL- POST 47 5036 HIGHWAY 85
FOREST PARK, GEORGIA 30050-2405

Drivers License Issuance Facilities

*+Post 40- Albany ....... (912) 430-4251 Post 10 - Americus . . . . . (912) 931-2535 Post 32 - Athens . . . . . . . . (706) 542-9928 *Post 51 -Augusta . . . . . . (706) 771-7815 Post 27- Blue Ridge .... (706) 632-2216 *Post 23- Brunswick .... (912) 264-7394 Post 43 - Calhoun . . . . . . (706) 624-1333 Post 28 - Canton . . . . . . . (770) 720-3599 Post 50 -Capitol ....... (404) 656-2186 *Post 03 - Cartersville . . . . (770) 387-3704 Post 29- Cedartown .... (770) 749-2203 *Post 55 - Columbus . . . . . (706) 569-3033 Post 46- Conyers . . . . . . . (770) 388-5757 *Post 30- Cordele ....... (912) 276-2332 Post 08 - Covington . . . . . (770) 784-3097 Post 05 - Dalton . . . . . . . . (706) 272-2388 *Post 36- Douglas ...... (912) 384-1600 Post 20- Dublin ........ (912) 275-6600 Post 63 - Evans . . . . . . . . (706) 860-36 I6 Post 59- Forest Park .... (404) 669-3978 *Post 06 - Gainesville . . . . (770) 532-5308 *Post 0 I - Griffin . . . . . . . . (770) 229-3411 Post 16- Helena ........ (912) 868-6441 Post 11 -Hinesville ..... (912) 370-2604

*+Post 02 - LaGrange . . . . . . . . (706) 845-4108 Post 37 - La\\Tenceville . . . . (770) 995-6935
*+Post 53- Macon .......... (912) 751-6032 *Post 56 - Marietta . . . . . . . . . (770) 528-3251 *Post 33- Milledgeville ..... (912) 454-4717 *Post 52- Moreland ........ (404) 624-2469 Post 24 - Ne\\nan . . . . . . . . . (770) 254-7270 *Post 18- Reidsville ........ (912) 557-7780 Post 41 - Rock Spring . . . . . . (706) 764-3755 Post 38 - Rome . . . . . . . . . . . (706) 295-6032
*+Post 58 - Sandy Springs . . . . (770) 551-7373 Post 42- Savannah ........ (912) 651-3004 *Post45-Statesboro ....... (912)681-5999 *Post 19- Swainsboro ...... (912) 289-2595 *Post 26 - Thomaston . . . . . . . (706) 646-6454 Post 12- Thomasville ...... (912) 227-2500 *Post 25 - Thomson . . . . . . . . (706) 595-2973 Post 13 - Tifton . . . . . . . . . . . (9 I2) 386-3530 *Post 07- Toccoa .......... (706) 282-4532
*+Post 60 - Union City . . . . . . . (770) 306-6909 *+Post 31 -Valdosta ......... (912) 333-5385
*Post 04 - Villa Rica . . . . . . . . (770) 459-3549 *Post61-WarnerRobins .... (912)929-6774 *+Post 22- Waycross ........ (912) 285-6296

Normal hours of operation for licensing facilities is from 9:00A.M. until 5:00P.M. Many license facility personnel travel away from assigned facilities during designated days of each month.
Motorcycle written examinations (for licenses and permits) are administered at ALL license facilities.
*License facilities administering the motorcycle road/skill test.
+MUST first call facility fur motorcycle road test times or appointment.
Note: In several metro areas across the state, License Renewal Stations have been opened to help reduce waiting lines. See the last page of this manual for a listing of renewal stations. Additional information concerning renewal stations and driver's license call (404) 657-9300.

VISIT OUR WEB SITE
www.ganet.org/dps

Rev. 06/98

1!ABLE OF CONTENTS
PREPARING 'I'() RIDE ............................................. I WEAR THE RIGHT GEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Helmet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Helmet Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Helmet Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Eye and Face Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Clothing ..................................................... 3 CHECK THE MOIORCYCLE ........................................ 3 GET FAMILIAR WITH THE MOIORCYCLE ......................... 4
CONTROL FOR SAFETY ........................................... 6 BODY POSITION .............................................. b TURNING ...................................................... 6 BRAKING ...................................................... 8 SHIFTING GEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Downshifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Shifting for a Thm . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SEE AND BE SEEN ................................................. 9 CLafHING ....................................................... 9 HEADLIGHT ..................................................... 9 SIGNALS ........................................................ 9 Thm Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Brake Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 POSITION FOR BEING SEEN . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. . .. . . 10 Stay Out of Blind Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Let the Driver Ahead See You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Help Drivers at Intersections See You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 HORN ......................................................... 13 SCAN, IDENTIFY; PREDICT, DECIDE, EXECUTE, (SIPDE) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 USING YOUR MIRRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 HEAD CHECKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 POSITION 10 SEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
KEEPING YOUR DISTANCE ....................................... 19 DIS'D\NCE IN FRONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 DIS'D\NCE 10.THE SIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Passing Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Cars at Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Parked Cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Lane Sharers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Merging Cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Cars Alongside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 DIS'D\NCE BEHIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
HANDLING DANGEROUS SURFACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 SLIPPERY SURFACES ............................................ 23 Handling Slippery Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Very Slippery Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 UNEVEN SURFACES AND OBSTACLES ............................ 24

RAILROAD TRACKS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

GROOVES AND GRATINGS o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

RIDING AT NIGHT

. . . . o 0 0 o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

25 26 27

DEALING WITH EMERGENCiES . . . . . 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

QUICK S'IOPS 2 8 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 o o o o o o o

EVASIVE MANEUVERS 28 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o -0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

MECHANICAL PROBLEMS 29 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Tire Failure

0 0 o 0 o o 0 o oo o o0 0 0 0 o 0 0 o oo oo oo 0 0 oo 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0

29

S t u c k T h r o t t l e 2 9 0 0 o o o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 o 0 o o 0 o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Wobble

0 0 0 0 0 ooooooooooooo0 0 ; oooooooo 0 o 0 0 ooooo0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 oooo0 0 0

30

C h a i n P r o b l e m s 3 0 o o 0 o 0 o o o 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 0 o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

E n g i n e S e i z u r e 3 0 o o o 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 o o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o 0 o

GETTING OFF THE R()AD 31 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

OTHER EMERGENCIES 31 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 o o o o o o o o

F l y i n g O b j e c t s 31 o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o

Animals

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0. 0

0

0

0

0

0

0 oooo0

0

0

0 0

0

0

0 0

o 0

0

0

0

0 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

31

CARRYING PASSENGERS AND CARGO 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

PASSENGERS 3 2 o o o o- o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Equipment 0 o o o o o o o o o o 0 o 0 0 o o o o o o o o 0 o o o 0 o o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 o 0 0

Instructing Passengers o o o 0 0 0 0

0

0 00 00 00 0 0 0

0 00 00 000 00 00 0000 00 00 0

Riding with Passengers o o o o o o o 0 0 0 0

0 00 00 00 00 0

00 , 00 00 00 000 00 00 0

32 32 33

CARRYING LOADS 3 3 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

GR()UP RIDING . o o o o 0 0 0 o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

34

KEEP THE GR()UP SMALL o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o KEEP THE GR()UP 'TOGETHER o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o KEEP YOUR DISTANCE . . o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 o o BEING IN SHAPE '10 RIDE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ........ 0 .. .. .. ..

34 34 34 36

WHY THIS INFORMATION IS IMPORrANT . o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o. 36

ALCOHOL IN THE BODY 36 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Blood Alcohol Concentration . . . . . . . . . . 36 0 0 0 0 0

W h a t D e t e r m i n e s BAC 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

ALCOHOL AND THE LAW 37 o o o o o o

Consequences of Conviction ........ 0 0 0 0

38

T h e Laws i n Your S t a t e . . . 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 , 0 0 0

ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS IN MOIORCYCLE OPERATION .. o o 38

MINIMIZING THE RISKS . . . . . . . . . . . o o o o - o o 38

Controlling Drinking . . . . . . 39 0 0 0 0 0

C o n t r o l l i n g R i d i n g 3 9 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0

STEPPING IN TO PROTECT FRIENDS ... o o o o o o o 39

FATIGUE . . . . . 4 0 o o o 00 o 0 o o o o 0 00

YOUR MOIDRCYCLE

.. 0



0

0 0

0



0

0

0



0



0

0

0



0

0

0



0

0

0

0

0



0

0

0

0

41

THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT . . . . 41 o o o o o o o o o 0 o o o

MOIORCYCLE CARE . . . . . . . . 41 o o o o o o o o o o o , o

EARNING YOUR LICENSE . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...

43

KNOWLEDGE TEST 4 3 o , o o o o o o o o o o ON-CYCLE T E S T 4 4 o o o o o o o o o o o -- o o o o o o o SIGNS, SIGNALS, & MARKINGS 52 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 0 0 o o o 0 o 0

The Motorcycle Safety Foundation purpose is improving the safety of motorcyclists on the nation's streets and highways. In an attempt to reduce motorcycle accidents and injuries, the Foundation has programs in rider education, licensing improvement, public information and research. These programs are designed for both motorcyclist and motorists. For the beginning or experienced rider training course nearest you, call the state toO-free telephone number (800) 446-9217. A national, non-profit organization, MSF is sponsored by five leading motorcycle manufacturers: Honda, Yamaha, Kawasaki, Suzuki and BMW.
Tile hllor.atloa COili8IDed Ia tills publbdoa II olrend lor tile beaeftt of tlaaoe wllo llave ulatuest Ia ridla& ~Tile lalor.atloa bu been .....plied , _ publicatloaa, lateniews .... Clboerw&lou of Individuals ....
............... r.mm.r wltJa tile- of _,.,.cia, IICaAOriel, .... tnolalaJI.
Jlecaue tJoere U'e ...., d i l l _ Ia product deslp, ridin& styles,l"edenl, State 111111 loc8l lawo, tbere may be Ol'pllizatloas 111111 ladiYiduals who bold
dlfreria& oplaloao. COIIIIIH your loc8l replatol")' qeacles lor lalormatloa
coacerala& tbe operatloa of motorcycles Ia yoar area. Altboacb tbe
.....,...un. Motorcyde Safety I"OIIIIIIatloa will coatlaue to ._,.,b, lleld - ud publilb \'iewpolats oa tbe sabjed, It dlsdalms uy llabiJity lor tile views expressed bereia.

l!:REPARING TO RIDE
As a rider, what you do before you start a trip goes a long way toward determining whether or not you'll get where you want to go safely. Before taking off on any trip, a safe rider makes a point of:
Wearing the right geat: Checking the motorcycle. Getting familiar with the motorcycle.
0 WEAR THE RIGHT GEAR
When you ride, your gear is "right" if it protects you. In any accident, you have a far better chance of avoiding serious injury if you are wearing:
An approved helmet. Face or eye protection. Protective clothing.
The Helmet Accidents are not rare events-particularly among beginning riders.
And one of every five motorcycle accidents reported results in head or neck injuries-the worst kind of injuries you can get. Head injuries are your greatest threat. They are just as severe as neck injuries-and far more common. Wearing a helmet neither raises nor reduces your risk of neck injury. But head injuries are another mattet: Wearing a securely fastened helmet is the single most important thing you can do to improve your chances of surviving an accident.
HelmetUse Some riders don't wear helmets because they think helmets will limit
their view to the sides. Others wear helmets only on long trips or when riding at high speeds. Here are some facts to consider:
An approved helmet lets you see as far to the sides as necessary. A study of more than 900 motorcycle accidents, where 40% of the riders wore helmets, failed to find even one case in which a helmet kept a rider from spotting danget:
Most accidents happen on short trips (less than five miles long), just a few minutes after starting out.
Even low-speed accidents can be fatal. Most riders are going slower than 30 mph when they get hurt. At these speeds, helmets can cut both the number and the severity of head injuries by half.
No matter what the speed, unhelmeted riders are three times more likely to die from head injuries than are riders who are\wearing helmets at the time of the accident.

II Hebnet Selection There are two primary types of helmets, providing two different levels
of coverage, three-quarter; and full face.

FULL FACE
~

THREE-QUARTER

Whichever style you choose, you can get the most protection out of that type helmet by making sure it:
Meets U.S. Department of Transportation (Dar) and state standards. Helmets with labels from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), or the Snell Memorial Foundation give you added assurance of quality.
Fits snugly, all the way around. Has no obvious defects such as cracks, loose padding, or frayed
str~ps.
Not all helmet damage is obvious. If you're thinking of buying a used helmet, first make sure it's made by a company that will check it for damage. Then have the manufacturer check it before you pay for it.
Whatever helmet you decide on, make sure to keep it securely fastened on your head when you ride. Otherwise, if you have an accident, it's likely to fly off your head before it gets a chance to protect you.
Eye and Face Protection A plastic faceshield can help protect your whole face in an accident. It
also protects you from wind, dust, qirt, rain, insects, and stones thrown up from cars ahead. These things are distracting and can be painful. If you have to deal with these problems, you can't devote your full attention to the road.
Goggles can protect your eyes from all these things, though they won't protect the rest of your face like a faceshield does: A windshield is no substitute for a faceshield or goggles. Most windshields will not protect your eyes from wind. Neither will eyeglasses or sunglasses. Glasses won't keep your eyes from watering, and they might blow off when you tum your head while riding.

To be effective, eye or face protection must:
Be free of scratches. Be made of material that does not shatter: Give a clear view to either side. Fasten securely, so it cannot be blown off. Allow air to pass through, to reduce fogging. Allow enough room for eyeglasses or sunglasses if needed.
Tinted eye protection should not be worn at night or any other time when little light is available.
Clothing Clothing can help protect you in an accident. Jacket and pants should cover your arms and legs completely. Make
sure they fit snugly enough to keep from flapping in the wind, yet loosely enough to let you move freely. Leather offers the most protection, but heavy denim does an adequate job in most cases, at a reasonable price. However; sturdy synthetic material can give you a lot of protection as well. Wear a jacket even in warm weather: Many jackets are designed to protect you without getting you overheated, even on summer days.
Boots or shoes should be high enough to cover your ankles and sturdy enough to give them support. Soles should be made of hard, durable material. Heels should be short, so they do not catch on rough surfaces. If your boots or shoes have laces, be sure they're tucked in so they won't catch on your motorcycle.
Gloves are also important. They give you a better grip and help protect your hands in an accident. Your gloves should be made of leather or heavy cloth.
In cold or wet weather; your clothes should keep you warm and dry, as well as protect you from injury. You cannot control a motorcycle well if you are numb. Riding for long periods in cold weather can cause severe chill and fatigue. A winter jacket should resist wind and fit snugly at the neck, wrists, and waist. Rain suits should be of good quality and designed for riding. Otherwise they may tear apart or balloon up at high speeds. Some gloves are made to keep wind or rain from going up your sleeves.
D CHECK THE MOTORCYCLE If something's wrong with the motorcycle, you'll want to find out
about it before you get in traffic. Here are the things you should check before every ride.
While walking to the motorcycle take a good look at you tires. If one looks low, check the pressure. The motorcycle will not handle properly if the air pressure is too low and could result in tire failure.
Look under the bike for signs of an oil or gas leak. If there is a puddle, determine the cause and get the leak fixed.
Before mounting the motorcycle make the following checks:

F1.uids-Oil and fuel levels. Headlight and Tat1light-Check them both. Thst your dimmer to
make sure both high and low beams are working. 'TUrn Signals-Thrn on both right and left turn signals. Make sure
all four lights flash. Brake Light-'I'ry both brake controls, and make sure each one
turns on the brake light. Hydraulic F1.uids-Check sight windows when accessible. At a
minimum, check weekly. Coolants-Check reservoir when accessible. At a minimum, check
weekly.
Once you have mounted the motorcycle the following checks should be completed before starting out:
Clutch and Throttle-Make sure they work smoothly. The throttle should snap back when you let go.
Mirrors-Clean and adjust both mirrors before starting out, because it's difficult to ride with one hand while you try to adjust a mirr01: Adjust each mirror to let you see the lane behind and as much as possible of the lane next to you. When properly adjusted, a mirror lJlay show the edge of your arm or shoulder-but it's the road behind and to the side that's most important.
Brakes-Try the front and rear brake levers one at a time. Make sure each one feels firm and holds the motorcycle when the brake is fully applied.
Horn-Try the horn. Make sure it works.
0 GET FAMILIAR WITH THE MO'IORCYCLE Make sure you are completely familiar with the motorcycle before you
take it out on the street. This is particularly important if you are riding a borrowed cycle, as over half of the motorcycle accidents occur to riders with less than six months experience on the accident cycle. If you are going to use an unfamiliar motorcycle:
( 1) Make all the checks you would on your own cycle. (2) Find out where everything is, particularly the turn signals, horn,
headlight switch, fuel control valve, and engine cut-off switch. Make sure you can find and operate them without having to look for them. (3) Check the controls. Make sure you know the gear pattern. Work the throttle, clutch, and brakes a few times before you start riding. All controls react a little differently. ( 4) Ride ver-y cautiously until you are used to the way the motorcycle handles. For :Instance, accelerate gently, take turns more slowly, and leave yourself extra room for stopping.

1. Thrn Signal Switch 2. Gear Change Lever 3. Thchometer 4. Speedometer & Odometer 5. Rear Brake Pedal 6. Throttle 7. Clutch Lever 8. Engine Cut-off Switch 9. Light Switch 10. Kick Starter 11. Front Brake Lever 12. Horn Button

fSoNTROLFORSAFETY
This Manual cannot teach you how to control direction, speed, or balance. That's something you can learn only through a lot of practice. However, here are a few pointers to help you keep control and avoid accidents.
D BODY POSITION
To control a motorcycle well, your body must be in ~he proper position.
Seat-Sit far enough forward so that your arms are slightly bent when you hold the handlegrips. Bending your arms lets you turn the handlebars without having to stretch. Hands-Hold the handlegrips firmly. This will help you keep your grip if the motorcycle bounces. Start with your right wrist down. This will help you keep from accidentally using too much throttle-especially if you need to reach for the brake suddenly. Also, ensure that the handlebars are adjusted so your hands are 'even with, or below your elbows. This allows you to use the proper muscles for precision steering.

RIGHT

WRONG

Knees-Keep your knees against the gas tank This will help you keep your balance as the motorcycle turns. Feet-Keep your feet firmly on the footpegs. Firm footing can help you keep your balance. Don't drag your foot along the ground. If your foot catches on something, you could lose control of the motorcycle. Keep your feet near the controls. This lets you get to the controls fast if you have to use them. Also, don't let your toes drop down-they may get caught between the road and the footpeg. Posture-You should sit fairly erect, This lets you use your arms to steer the motorcycle rather than to hold yourself up.
DTURNING New riders often try to take curves or turns too fast. When they can't
hold the turn, they end up crossing into another lane of traffic or going

off the road. Ot; they overreact and brake too hard causi,ng a skid and loss of control. Until you learn to judge how fast you can safely take a curve, approach all turns with caution. When turning use the following four steps for better control:
SLOW WOK
LEAN
ROLL
Slow-Reduce speed before the turn by closing the throttle and, if necessary; applying both brakes. Look-Use your head and eyes for directional control. Look through the turn to where you want to go. Thrn just your head, not your shoulders and keep your eyes level with the horizon. Lean-To turn, the motorcycle must lean. To lean the motorcycle, push on the handgrip in the direction of the turn. Push left - lean left - go left. Push right- lean right- go right. Higher speeds and/or tighter turns require more lean.

LEAN WITH MOTORCYCLE

LEAN MOTORCYCLE ONLY

In normal turns, the rider and motorcycle should lean togethet: ln slow tight turns, lean the motorcycle only and keep your body straight. .Roll-Roll on the throttle through the turn. Maintain steadyspeed or gradually accelerate. Avoid deceleration while in the turn.

BRAKING Your motorcycle has two brakes. You need to use both of them. The front brake is more powerful. It provides about three-quarters of your motorcycle's total stopping powet: The front brake is not dangerous if you learn to use it properly Here are some things to remember about braking:

11 Use both brakes every time you slow down or stop. If you use only

the rear brake for "normal" stops, you may not develop the habit or

the skill to use the front brake properly when you really need to stop

quickly



II Apply both brakes at the same time. Some people believe that the

rear brake should be applied first. That is not a good idea. The

sooner you apply the front brake, the sooner it will start slowing you

down.

II Remember, you can use 1oth brakes in a tum. Some motorcycles

have integrated braking sjstems which link the front and rear

brakes together, on application of the rear brake pedal. Using the

front brake is dangerous only if the road is very slippery and you

use the brake incorrectly Otherwise, if you know the technique

using both brakes in a tum is possible although it should be done

very carefully When leaning the motorcycle some of the traction

available is used for cornering. So if you use the brakes when leaned

less traction is available for stopping. A skid can occur when too

much brake is applied.

SHIFI'ING GEARS There is more to shifting gears than simply getting the motorcycle to pick up speed smoothly Accidents can happen if you use the gears incorrectly when downshifting, turning, or starting on hills.

B Downshifting Shift down through the gears as you slow down or stop. And stay in
first gear while you are stopped. This way you can move out quickly if you need to.
Make certain you are going slowly enough when you shift into a lower geat: If you're going too fast, the motorcycle will lurch, and the rear wheel may skid. This is more likely to happen when you are going downhill or shifting into first geat: Under these conditions, you may need to use the brakes to slow down enough to downshift safely

B Shifting for a Turn It is best to change gears before entering a tum, however, sometimes
shifting is necessary If so, remember to do so smoothly A sudden change in power to the rear wheel can cause a skid.

@E AND BE SEEN
In accidents with motorcyclists, car drivers often say that they never saw the motorcycle. It's hard to see something you're not looking f01; and most drivers are not looking for motorcycles. Also, from ahead or from behind, a motorcycle's outline is much smaller than a car's.
Even if a driver sees you coming, you aren't necessarily safe. Because you and your bike are smaller than other vehicles, it's easier for others to mistake your distance and speed. Howevet; you can do many things to make it easier for others to recognize you and your cycle.
DcLorHING Most accidents occur in broad daylight. If you don't wear bright
clothing, you greatly increase your risk of not being seen during the day. Remembet; your body is half of the visible surface area of the rider/cycle unit.
Clothing that helps you be seen includes bright orange, yellow, or green jackets or vests. And your helmet can do more than protect you in an accident. If it is brightly colored, it can help others see you.
Any bright color is better than drab or dark colors. Fluorescent clothing (helmet and jacket or vest) is best for daytime riding. At night, it is best to wear reflective gear: Reflective material on the sides of helmet and vest will help drivers coming from the side spot you. Reflective material can also be a big help for drivers coming towai-d you on the road ahead or from behind.
DHEADLIGHT The best way to help others on the road see your motorcycle is to keep
the headlight on-at all times. Studies show that, during the day, a motorcycle with lights off is twice as likely to go unnoticed by other road user's. Also, use of the high beam in daylight increases the likelihood that you will be seen by oncoming drivers.
DSIGNALS The signals on a motorcycle are similar to those on a car: Howevet;
signals are far more important to a rider:
Turn Signals Turn signals do two things for you. First, they tell others what you plan
to do. Use them anytime you plan to change lanes. Use them even when you think no one else is around. It's the car you don't see that's going to give you the most trouble. Second, your signal lights make you easier to spot. Drivers behind are more likely to see your turn signal than your taillight. That's why it's a good idea to use your turn signals even when what you plan to do is obvious. For example, when you are on a freeway entrance ramp, drivers on the freeway are more likely to see you-and therefore make room for you-if you use your tum signal.

I I I I I I
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Not turning off a signal is just as bad as not turning it on. A driver may think you plan to turn again and pull directly into your path. Once you've made your turn, check your signal to make sure it is of
Brake Light Your motorcycle's brake light is usually not as noticeable as the brake
lights on a car-particularly when your taillight is on. (It goes on with the headlight.) Still, you can help others notice you by tapping the foot brake lightly before you slow down. This will flash your brake light. It is especially important to signal others by flashing your brake light whenever:
You are going to slow down more quickly than might be expected (for example, when you are going to make a turn off a high-speed highway).
You are going to slow where others may not expect it (for example, when you will slow to turn in the middle of a block, at an alley).
If you are being followed closely, it's a good idea to flash your brake light before you slow-even if you won't be slowing more quickly than might be expected. The tailgater may be looking only at you and fail to see something farther ahead that will make you slow down.
0 POSITION FOR BEING SEEN
Though the size of a motorcycle can make it harder for other drivers to spot you, you can make size work to your advantage..A car driver has very little choice about where he positions his car in a lane. Howevet; each marked lane gives a motorcyclist three possible paths oftravel, as indicated in the illustration.

MINI-LANES
W.I.T.H..I.N..A..L..A.N..E
L E F T
GREASE STRIP
Each "mini~lane" is approximately four feet wide. By selecting the appropriate "mini-lane," you can make yourself more easily seen by others on the road.
In general, there is no best position for riders when it comes to being seen, however, no portion of the lane need be avoided-including the center. Some people feel that riding in the center portion is dangerous. They argue that the grease strip which often appears in this portion (formed by droppings from other vehicles) is slippery and will cause riders to fall. Such fears are overblown.
Grease strips are usually no more than two feet wide. Since the center portion of the lane is four feet wide, you can operate to the left or right of the grease strip and still be within the center portion. Unless the road is wet with rain, the average grease strip gives just as much traction as the rest of the pavement. Of course, big build-ups of grease - as may be found at very busy intersections or toll booths-should be avoided.
The main idea of positioning yourself to be seen is this: Ride in the portion of the lane where it is most likely that you will be seen. In other words, ride where it will be most difficult for other drivers to miss seeing you. Here are some ways to do this.
Stay Out of Blind Spots Either pass the other vehicle or drop back. When you pass a car, get
through the blind spot as quickly as you can. Approach with care. But once you are alongside, speed up and get by quickly.

When behind a cat; try to ride where the driver can see you in his rearview mirror: Riding in the center portion of the lane should put your image in the middle of the rearview mirror-where it's most likely to be seen. Riding at the far side of a lane may let you be seen in a sideview mirror: But most drivers don't look at their sideview mirrors nearly as often as they check the rearview mirror:

Help Drivers at Intersections See You The most dangerous place for any rider is an intersection. That's
where most motorcycle accidents take place. The most common cause of these accidents is that the car driver infringed on the rider's right-of-way.
The best way to increase your chances of being seen as you approach an intersection usually is to ride in the portion of the lane that gives the best view of oncoming traffic and with your lights on. As you enter the intersection, position yourself to provide a space cushion all around you that allows you to take evasive action.
If you are approaching a blind intersection, it is best to move to the portion of the lane that will bring you into another driver's field of sight at the earliest possible moment. In the picture below, the rider has moved to the left portion of the lane-away from the parked car-so the driver on the cross street can see him as soon as possible.
Remember, the key is to see as much as possible. This will usually make you as visible as possible while protecting your space.
DHORN Get your thumb on the horn button and be ready to use it whenever
you need to get someone's attention. It is a good idea to give a quick beep before you pass anyone you think
may move into your lane. Here are some situations: A driver in the lane next to you is getting too close to the vehicle ahead and may want to pass. A parked car has someone in the 'driver's seat. Someone is in the street, riding a bicycle or walking.

In an emergency; a warning beep won't be enough. Blast the horn in a true emergency and be ready to slow or turn away from the dange:r
The two biggest dangers facing you as a rider are (1) oncoming cars that turn left in front of you, and (2) cars on side streets that pull out into your lane. Never count on "eye contact" as a sign that a driver has seen you and wz1l yield the right-of-way All too often, a driver looks right at a motorcyclist and stz1l faz1s to "see" him.
No matter what you do, you can't guarantee that others will see you. The only eyes you can really count on are your own. A good rider is always "looking for trouble"-not to get into it, but to stay out of it.
OSIPDE Experienced riders make a practice ofbeing aware of what is going on
around them. They can create their riding strategy by using a system known as SIPDE.
SIPDE is an acronym for the process used to make judgements and take action in traffic. It stands for:
Scan
Identify Predict Decide Execute
Let's examine each of these steps.
scan
Search agressively for potential hazards. Scanning provides you with the information you need to make your decisions in enough time to take action.
Identify Locate hazards and potential conflicts. The hazards you encounter can
be divided into three groups based on how critical their effect on you maybe.
Cars, trucks, and other vehicles-They share the road with you, they move quickly; and your reactions to them must be quick and accurate.
Pedestrians and animals-They are characterized by unpredictability and short quick moves.
Stationary objects-Chuckholes, guard rails, bridges, roadway signs, hedges, or rows of trees won't move into your path, but may create or complicate your riding strategy.
The greatest potential for a conflict between you and other traffic is at intersections. An intersection can be in the middle of an urban area or

at a driveway on a residential street-anywhere other traffic may cross your path of travel. Most motorcycle/automobile collisions occur at intersections. And most of these collisions are caused by an on-coming vehicle turning left into the path of the motorcycle. Your use of SIPDE at intersections is critical.
Before you enter an intersection, search for:
Oncoming traffic that may tum left in front of you. Traffic from the left. Traffic from the right. Traffic approaching from behind.
Be especially alert at intersections with limited visibility. Be aware of visually "busy" surroundings that could camouflage you and your motorcycle.
Predict Anticipate how the hazard may affect you. The moving direction of a
potential hazard is important. Clearly, a vehicle moving away from you is not as critical as a vehicle moving in your path.
Determine the effect of the hazard-where a collision might occur: How critical is the hazard? How probable is a collision? This is the "What if..?" phase of SIPDE that depends on your knowledge and experience. Now estimate the consequences of the hazard. How might the hazard-or your effort to avoid it-affect you and others?
Decide Determine how to reduce the hazard. There are only three things you
can do:
Communicate your presence. Adjust your speed Adjust your position.
Communication is the most passive action you can take since it depends on the response of someone else. Use your lights and hom, but don't rely on the actions of others.
Adjustments of speed can be acceleration, slowing or stopping. Adjustments of position can be changing lane position or completely changing direction. In both cases, the degree of adjustment depends on how critical the hazard is and how much time and space you have. The more time and space you have to carry out your decision, the less amount of risk you'll encounte:r: In areas of high potential risk, such as intersections, give yourself more time and space by reducing the time you need to react. Cover both brakes and the clutch and be ready with possible escape routes.

Execute Carry out your decision. This is when your riding skills come into play.
And this is where they must be second nature. The best decision will be meaningless without the skills to carry it out. Know your limits and ride within them.
0 USING YOUR MIRRORS
While it's most important to keep track of what's happening ahead, you can't afford to ignore what's happening behind. Traffic conditions can change quickly. By checking your mirrors every few seconds, you can keep track of the situation behind.
Knowing what's going on behind can help you make a safe decision about how to handle trouble ahead. For instance, if you know someone is following you too closely, you may decide to avoid a problem ahead by turning away from it, rather than by trying to stop quickly and risk being hit by the tailgate:r:
Frequent mirror checks should be part of your normal scanning routine. Make a special point of using your mirrors in these situations:
When you are stopped at an intersection. Watch cars coming up from behind. If the driver isn't paying attention, he could be right on top of you before he sees you.
Anytime you plan to change lanes. Make sure no one is about to pass you.
Anytime you will slow down. It is especially important to check if the driver behind may not expect you to slow, or if he may be unsure about exactly where you will slow. For example, he might see you signal a turn and think you plan to slow for a turn at a distant intersection, rather than at a nearer driveway.
Many motorcycles have rounded "convex" mirrors. These give ym1 a wider view of the road behind than do flat mirrors. However, they also make cars seem farther away than they really are. If you are not used to convex mirrors, get familiar with them. Here's how: Whi1e you are stopped, pick out a parked car in your mirror. Try to form a mental image of how far away it is. Then, tum around and look at it. See how close you came. Practice with your mirrors until you become a good judge of distance. Even then, allow extra distance before you change lanes.
0 HEAD CHECKS
Mirrors do a pretty good job ofletting you see behind. But motorcycles have "blind spots" just like cars. Before you change lanes, make sure to make a head check: turn your head, and look at traffic to the side. This is the only way you can be sure of spotting a car just about to pass you.
On a road with several lanes, make sure to check the far lane as well as the one next to you. A driver in the distant lane may be headed for the same space you plan to take.

POSITION TO SEE As a motorcycle rider; you can put yourself in a position to see things that a car driver cannot see.
On Curves-You can move from one portion of a lane to another to get a better view through a curve. Moving to the center portion of your lane before a curve-and staying there until you come out of the curve-lets you spot traffic coming toward you as soon as possible. This also allows you to adjust for traffic that is "crowding" the center line or for debris that is blocking part ofyourlane.

At blind intersections-Blind intersections can make it hard to see danger coming from the side. If you have a stop sign, stop there first. Then edge forward and stop again, just short of where the cross-traffic lane meets your lane. From that position, you can lean your body forward and look around buildings, parked cars, or bushes to see if anything is coming. Just make sure your front wheel stays out of the cross lane of travel while you're looking.

At the roadside-Angle your motorcycle so that you can see in both directions without straining and without having any part of the cycle in the lane of travel. Angling your motorcycle so that you can get a clear view in both directions is particularly important if you plan to tum across a lane of traffic.

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lEEEPING YOUR DISTANCE
The best protection you can have is distance-a "cushion of space"all around your cycle. If someone else makes a mistake, distance gives you two things:
Time to react. Some place to go.
0 DISTANCE IN FRONT
"Following too closely" is a major factor in accidents caused by motorcyclists. Motorcycles usually need as much distance to stop as do cars.
How much distance do you need to keep from following too closely? Normally, you will need a minimum of 2 seconds distance between yourself and the vehicle ahead. Here's how to gauge your following distance:
Pick out a marker-a pavement marking or lamp post, for instance -on or near the road ahead.
When the rear bumper of the vehicle ahead passes your marker, start counting off the seconds: "one-second-one, one-second-two."
If you reach your marker before you reach "two," you are following too closely.
A two-second following distance leaves you enough time to stop or swing by if the driver ahead of you stops suddenly. It also gives you a better view of potholes and other dangers in the road.
In some situations, you should open up a three-second following distance. This larger cushion of space is needed if your motorcycle will take longer than normal to stop (for example, if the pavement is slippery with rain) or if you cannot see through the vehicle ahead.
Keep well behind the vehicle ahead even when you are stopped. This will make it easier to get out of the way if someone bears down on you from behind. It will also give you a cushion of space if the vehicle ahead starts to back up for some reason.
0 DISTANCE TO THE SIDE
By shifting from one portion of a lane to another you can keep a safe cushion of space on both sides. An experienced rider changes position within the lane as traffic conditions change. Here are some conditions that require changes in lane position.
Passing Vehicles When you are being passed from behind or by an oncoming vehicle,
keep in the center portion of your lane. If you ride any closer to them, you could be hit by:

The other vehicle-A slight mistake by you or the passing driver could cause a sideswipe.
Extended mirrors-Some drivers forget that their mirrors hang out further than their fenders.
Something thrown from windows-Even if the driver knows you're there, a passenger may not see you and might toss something on you or the road ahead of you.
Blasts of wind from large vehicles-They can affect your control. You have more room for error if you are in the middle portion when you are hit by this blast than you would have if you were on either side of the lane.
Do not move into the portion of the lane farthest from the passing vehicle. While such a move would open up additional space between you and the passing vehicle, it might invite the other driver to cut back into your lane too early. Cars at Intersections
If a car can enter your path at an intersection, assume that it Wl1L As you approach the intersection, select a lane position to increase your visibility to the oncoming cat: 'fry to make eye contact with the driver and simultaneously cover the clutch and both brakes to reduce reaction time.
Reduce your speed before the intersection and as you enter the intersection move away from the turning cat: Do not change speed or position radically, as that may tell the car driver that you are preparing to tum.

Parked Cars When passing parked cars, stay toward the left of your lane. This lets
you avoid problems caused by doors opening, drivers getting out of cars, or people stepping from between cars.
A bigger problem is the car pulling out in front of you. A driver may pull away from the curb without checking for traffic behind. Even if he does look, he may fail to see you. In either event, the driver might cut into your path.
Drivers making U-tums are the most dangerous. By slowing down or changing lanes, you can make room for someone cutting in. But a car making a sudden U-tum may cut you off entirely, blocking the whole roadway and leaving you with no place to go. Since you can't tell what a driver will do when he starts to pull out, your first move should be to get his attention. Sound your hom. Then continue with caution, until either the driver makes his move or you are past the car:
Lane Sharers Cars and motorcycles both need a full lane to operate safely. Drivers
should not share lanes with motorcycles; motorcyclists should not share lanes with cars.
As a motorcycle rider; you can do two things to prevent lane sharing. First, you can make sure you don't try to share lanes. Don't ride between rows of stopped cars in the same lane. Anything can happen: a hand could come out of a window; a door could open; a car could tum suddenly. Second, discourage lane sharing by others. The best way to do this is to keep a center-portion position whenever other drivers might be tempted to squeeze by you. Drivers are most tempted to do this:
In heavy, bumper-to-bumper traffic. When they want to pass you.

When you are preparing to turn at an intersection. When you are about to get in an exit lane, or leave a highway.
If you move to the far side of your lane in these situations, you invite others to share the lane with you.
Merging Cars Don't assume that drivers on an entrance ramp can see you on the
highway. Give them plenty of room. Change to another lane if it is open. If there is no room for a lane change, adjust speed accordingly to open up space for the merging driver to pull into.
Cars Alongside Do not ride next to cars or trucks in other lanes if you do not have to.
A car in the next lane could switch into your lane without warning. Cars in the next lane also block your escape if you come upon danger in your own lane. Speed up or drop back until you find a place that is clear of traffic on both side'>.
0 DISTANCE BEHIND
If someone tailgates you, don't try to lose them by speeding up. You'll just end up being tailgated at a higher speed.
The only safe way to handle a tailgater is to get him in front of you. When someone is following too closely, the best thing to do is change lanes and let him pass. If you can't do this, slow down and open up extra space ahead of you. This will encourage him to pass. If he doesn't pass, you will have given yourself and the tailgater more time and space to react in case an emergency does develop.

l!!ANDLING DANGEROUS SURFACES
Your chance of falling increases whenever you ride across:
Slippery surfaces. Uneven surfaces or obstacles. Railroad tracks. Grooves and gratings.
0 SLIPPERY SURFACES Motorcycles handle better when ridden on surfaces giving good trac-
tion. Surfaces that provide poor traction include:
Wet pavement, particularly just after it starts to rain and before surface oil washes to the side of the road.
Gravel roads, or places where sand and gravel have collected on paved roads.
Mud, snow, and ice. Lane markings and steel plates and manhole covers, especially when
wet.
Handling Slippery Surfaces There are a number of things you must do to ride safely on slippery
surfaces:
Reduce Speed--:-Slow down before you get to a slippery surface as your motorcycle needs more distance to stop. By going slower, you can stop and turn more gradually; lessening your chances of skidding. It is particularly important to reduce speed before entering wet curves. Avoid Sudden Moves-On slippery surfaces, any sudden change in speed or direction can cause a skid. Be as smooth as possible when you speed up, shift gears, turn or brake. Use Both Brakes-Don't be afraid to use the front brake as well as the rear brake. The front brake is still more effective than the rear brake, even on a slippery surface. Just be careful to apply it gradually and avoid locking up the front wheel. Don't squeeze the brake lever too hard. Avoid Slippery Areas-Try to find the best surface available, and use it.
Under normal conditions, riding on the grease strip is not dangerous. However, the grease strip can become dangerous when wet. When it starts to rain, move out of the center portion entirely; and ride in the tire tracks left by cars. Often, the left tire track will be the best position. However, you should change your lane position for traffic and other roadway conditions as well.
Watch for oil spots when you stop or park. If you put your foot down in the wrong place, you may slip and fall.

Dirt and gravel tend to collect along the sides of the roadespecially on curves and ramps leading to and from highways. Stay away from the edge of the road, particularly when making sharp turns at intersections and when getting on or off freeways at high speed.
Rain dries and snow melts faster on some sections of a road than on others. Try to stay on the driest, least slippery part of the lane at all times.
B Very Slippery Surfaces Safe riders wouldn't even consider riding on roads covered with ice or
snow. However, you may find yourself ona road with scattered patches of ice or snow. Patches of ice tend to crop up in low or shaded areas and on bridges and overpasses. You may also encounter, from time to time, wet surfaces or wet leaves in the fall. These are just as slippery as an ice patch.
Avoid all of these surfaces if at all possible. If you can't, keep you:r bike straight up and proceed as slowly as possible, letting your feet skim along the surface so you can catch yourself if the bike starts to fall. Be sure to keep off the brakes and if possible, squeeze the clutch and coasf while you are on a very slippery surface.
UNEVEN SURFACES AND OBSTACLES Watch for uneven surfaces such as bumps, broken pavement, potholes, or railroad tracks. If you have to ride over them, or obstacles such as a piece of tire tread or tailpipe, here's what you should do:
If time permits, slow down to reduce the jolt. Make sure the motorcycle is straight up. Rise slightly off the seat with your weight on the foot pegs so you
can absorb the shock with your knees and elbows.

Rising off the seat will cut your chances of being thrown off the bike. However; controlling the throttle r,an be somewhat tricky. Practice this technique in a safe area (such a.s a deserted parking lot) before you try to do it on-street.
If you ride over an object on the street, it's a good idea to pull off the road and check your tires and rims for damage before going any farther.
D RAILROAD TRACKS
You don't have to cross railroad tracks head-on (at a 90 degree angle). Usually; it is safer to take the tracks as they come, riding straight within your lane. A motorcycle can cross tracks at an angle as sharp as 45 degrees without difficulty. Changing your course to take tracks head-on can be more dangerous than crossing at an angle - it may carry you into another lane of traffic.
You do need to change direction, however; to cross something that runs in the same direction you are going. For example, you may wish to cross trolley tracks, ruts in the middle of the road, or pavement seams that run parallel to your course.

To cross these safely, move far enough away to be able to cross them at an angle of at least 45 degrees. Then, make a quick, sharp turn across. Do not try to edge across. The tracks or seam could catch your tires and throw you off balance.
0 GROOVES AND GRATINGS
When you ride over rain grooves or metal bridge gratings, the motorcycle shakes. It's an uneasy, wandering feeling, but it's generally not dangerous. The best thing to do is relax, stay on course, maintain speed, and ride straight across. Some riders make the mistake of trying to cross these surfaces at an angle. This may reduce the uneasy feeling, but it also forces the rider to zigzag to stay in the lane. The zigzag is far more dangerous than the wandering feeling.

RIGHT

WRONG

@DING AT NIGHT
At night it is harder for you to see and be seen. Other drivers may have a hard time picking your headlight or taillight out of the greater number of car lights around you.
Here are some methods that will help you ride safely at night:
Reduce Your Speed-If something is lying in the road ahead, you mayc not be able to see it until you are very close to it. If you are going too fast, you may not be able to avoid it. Always drive slower at night than you would during the day-particuliuly on roads you don't know well. Increase Distance-No one can judge distance as well at night as during the day. Your eyes rely greatly upon shadows and light contrasts to judge both how far away an object is and how tast it is coming. These contrasts are missing or distorted. under the artificial light available at night. Allow yourself extra distance at night. Open up a three-second following distance. And give yourself more distance in which to pass. Use the Car Ahead-If a car is ahead of you, make the most of it. The car's headlights can give you a better view of the road ahead than even your high beam can. And keep an eye on the car's taillights and brakelights. Taillights bouncing up and down can alert you to bumps or rough pavement. Use Your High Beam-Get all the light you can. Use your high beam whenever you are not following or meeting a car.
You should be flexible about lane position, changing to whatever portion of the lane is best able to help you see, be seen, and keep an adequate space cushion. For example, riding in the center portion at night is not nearly as dangerous as some people would lead you to believe. Cars seldom pass over a' pothole or road debris without some warning-like a flash of brake lights.

l!!EALING WITH EMERGENCIES
No matter how careful you are, there will be times when you find yourself in a tight spot. Your cha11ces of getting out safely depend upon your ability to react quickly and properly. The most important emergency skills are those needed to make quick stops and quick turns. These skills should be practiced in safe areas before you need to use them on the road.
0 QIDCKSTOPS
To stop quickly, apply both brakes. Don't be shy about using the front brake, but don't "grab" at it, eithet: Squeeze the brake lever steadily and firmly, applying the front brake as fully as you can without locking the front wheel. At the same time, apply the rear brake hard without locking it.
If you are on a straightaway even with a locked rear wheel, you can still control the cycle and stop quickly as long as your motorcycle is upright and going in a straight line.
If you must stop quickly whi1e turning, conditions may not always permit you to straighten up the motorcycle and then stop. In such cases, apply the brakes and 1Start slowing the motorcycle. As you slow down, you can reduce your lean angle and apply more brake pressure until the motorcycle is straight and maximum brake pressure is possible. In either case, remember that the motorcycle should be straight up when you come to a full stop. If you "straighten" the handlebar in the last few feet of stopping, you know the motorcycle will be straight up and in balance.
0 EVASIVE MANEUVERS
Sometimes, you may not have enough room to stop, even if you were to use both brakes properly. For example, an object might appear suddenly in your path. Or, the car ahead might squeal to a stop. The only way to avoid a collision would be to make an evasive maneuvet:
The key to making an evasive maneuver is to get the motorcycle to lean quickly in the direction you wish to turn. The sharper the turn, the more the bike must lean.
To get the motorcycle to lean quickly, push on the inside of the handlegrip in the same directon you want to turn. If you wish to turn to the right, push on the inside of the right handlegrip. This causes the front wheel to move slightly to the left as you and the motorcycle continue straight ahead. As a result, the motorcycle will lean to the right.
As the motorcycle begins to lean, you will maintain pressure on the inside of the handlegrip in the direction of the lean. You don't have to think about it. Your instincts will make you press on the handlegrip to keep the motorcycle from falling ovet:
You can demonstrate this to yoursel Whi1e riding in a straight line, press the inside of the right handlegrip. You wl1l notice the motorcycle

tum to the right. This is how you get the motorcycle to lean in normal turns, but most people don't notice it except on very sharp turns. Practice making quick turns so you can make them in a real emergency.
In making an evasive maneuver, try to stay in your own lane. The moment you change lanes, you risk being hit by a car: Change lanes only if you have enough time to make sure there are no vehicles in the other lane. You should be able to squeeze by most obstacles without leaving your lane. This is one time when the size of the motorcycle is in your favor. Even if the obstacle is a car; there is generally room to pass beside it. However, the only time you should try to squeeze by a car in your lane is when you are faced with a true emergency.
0 MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
You can find yourself in an emergency the moment something goes wrong with your motorcycle. Mechanical problems include tire failure, a stuck throttle, a "wobble," chain problems, and engine seizure.
In dealing with any mechanical problem, you must take into account the road and traffic conditions you face. Here are some guidelines that can help you handle some mechanical problems safely.
Tire Failure If the cycle starts handling differently, pull off and check the tires.
Perhaps the hardest part of dealing with tire failure is to "get on top of the situation" quickly. You will seldom hear a tire go flat. You must be able to tell when a tire has lost air suddenly from the way the cycle reacts.
If the front tire goes flat, the steering will feel "heavy". If the rear tire goes flat, the back of the motorcycle will tend to jerk from side to side. If one ofyour tires suddenly loses air; you must react quickly to keep your balance. A front wheel flat is particularly dangerous. It affects your steering, and you have to steer well to keep your balance.
Here's what to do if either tire goes flat while riding: 1. Hold the handlegrips firmly and concentrate on steering. Try to
keep a straight course. 2. If you know which tire is flat, gradually apply the other brake. 3. Wait until the motorcycle is going very slowly. Then, edge to the
side of the road, and stop.
Stuck Throttle Sometimes when you try to operate the throttle you may find that it
won't close. If this happens when you are slowing for traffic ahead or making a turn, you must react quickly to prevent an accident.
Your first reaction will be automatic: you will twist the throttle back and forth. If the throttle cable is stuck, this may free it. However, if the throttle stays stuck after you have rotated it several times, immediately operate the engine cut-off switch and pull in the clutch. Use of the engine cut-off switch and the clutch at the same time will remove power
1m the rear wheel though engine noise may not immediately decline.

Once you have the motorcycle "under control" pull to the side of the

road and stop.

After you have stopped, check the throttle cable carefully to find the

source of the trouble. Make certain the throttle works freely before you

start to ride again.



wobble A "wobble" is when the front wheel and handlebars suddenly start to
shake from side-to-side. This can occur at low, as well as high speeds. Most wobbles can be traced to improper loading, the use of unsuitable accessories or the use of incorrect tires or tire pressure. If you are carrying a heavy load, lighten it. If you can't lighten the load, shift it. Center the weight lower to the ground and farther forward on the cycle. Also check your tire pressure and the settings for spring pre-load, airshocks, and dampers. Make sure they are at the levels recommended by the manufacturer for carrying that much weight. If you have a windshield or fairing, make sure it is mounted properly.
In addition to the above items, other things that may contribute to wobble are (1) poorly adjusted steering, (2) worn steering parts, (3) a front wheel that is bent, misaligned, or out of balance, (4) loose wheel bearings, (5) loose spokes, and (6) swing arm bearings, to name a few of the common causes.
Do not try to "accelerate out of a wobble." That will only make the cycle more unstable. Instead:
Grip the.handlebars firmly; but don't try to fight the wobble. Close the throttle gradually; and let the motorcycle slow down. Do
not apply the brakes; braking could make the wobble worse. Pull off the road as soon as you can. Then find out what caused the
wobble-and fix it.

Chain Problems If your chain slips or breaks while you're riding, it could lock the rear
wheel and cause your <:ycle to skid. You must react quickly.

Slippage-You may first hear or feel the chain slip when you try to speed up quickly or while riding uphill. If so, pull off the road, and check the chain and sprockets. Tightening the chain may help. But usually the problem is a worn or stretched chain or worn or bent sprockets. In these cases, replace the chain, the sprockets, or both before riding again. Breakage-When the chain breaks, you'll notice an instant loss of power to the rear wheel. Close the throttle, and brake to a stop.

Chain slippage or breakage can be avoided by proper maintenance.

Engine Seizure Engine seizure means that the engine "locks" or "freezes." Engines
seize when they are low on oil. Without oil, the engine's mqving parts

can't move smoothly against each other, and the engine overheats. The first sign that an engine needs oil may be a loss of engine power. You may also notice a change in the engine's sound. If available, check the engine oil pressure light and temperature gauge.
If you ignore these warnings and don't add oil, the engine may seize. When this happens, the effect is the same as a locked rear wheel.
Squeeze the clutch lever to disengage the engine from the rear wheel. Pull off the road and stop. Let the engine cool. You may be able to add oil and restart the engine. Even so, you should have the engine checked thoroughly for damage as soon as possible.
0 GETTING OFF THE ROAD
If you need to leave the road to check the motorcycle (or just to rest for a while), be sure you:
1. Check the roadside-Make sure the surface of the roadside is firm enough to ride on. If it is soft grass, loose sand, or if you're just not sure about it, slow way down before you turn onto it.
2. Signal others-Drivers behind might not expect you to slow down. As soon as you can, give a clear signal that you will be slowing down and changing direction. Make sure to check your mirror and make a head-check before you take any action.
3. Pull well off the road-Get as far off the road as you can. It can be very hard to spot a motorcycle by the side of the road. You don't want someone else pulling off at the same place you are.
0 orHER EMERGENCIES
There are two other emergencies that motorcycle riders should be prepared for. They happen often enough to be real problems.
Flying Objects From time to time you can be struck by inseCts, cigarettes thrown
from cars, or rocks kicked up by the tires of the vehicle ahead. If you aren't wearing face protection, you could be hit in the eye, face, or mouth. If you are wearing face protection, it might get smeared or cracked, making it difficult for you to see. Whatever happens, don't let it affect your control of the motorcycle. Keep your eyes on the road and your hands on the handlebars. As soon as it is safe, pull off the road and repair the damage.
Animals Naturally, you sfiould do everything you can to avoid hitting an
animal. However, if you are in traffic, don't swerve out of your lane to avoid a small animal. Hitting something small is less dangerous to you than hitting something big-like a car.
Motorcycles tend to attract dogs. If you find yourself being chased, don't kick at the animal. It's too easy to lose control of the motorcycle. Instead, shift down and approach the animal slowly. As you reach it, speed up quickly. You will leave the animal behind.

@"ARRYING PASSENGERS AND CARGO
You should avoid carrying passengers or large loads until you have gained a lot of experience riding alone. The extra weight changes the way the motorcycle handles, balances, turns, speeds up, and slows down. And, before taking a passenger or heavy load on the street, practice in a safe, off-road area.
0 PASSENGERS
To carry passengers safely you must:
Make sure your motorcycle is equipped and adjusted to carry passengers.
Instruct the passenger before you start. Adjust your riding technique for the added weight of the passenger.
B Equipment To carry passengers, you must have:
A proper seat-The seat should be large enough to hold both you and your passenger without crowding. You should not sit any further forward than you usually do.
Footpegs-The passenger must have his own set of footpegs. Without.a firm footing, your passenger can fall off and pull you off too.
Protective equipment-Passengers should have the same type protective equipment and clothing recommended for operators.
You should also adjust the cycle to handle the extra weight. While your passenger sits on the seat with you, adjust the mirror and headlight to the change in the motorcycle's angle. And it is a good idea to add a few pounds of pressure to the tires if you carry a passenger. (Check your owner's manual.)Then adjust the suspension to handle the additional weight.
B Instructing Passengers Don't assume the passenger knows what to do-even if he or she is a
motorcycle rider. Provide complete instructions before you start. To prepare your passenger for riding, tell him or her to:
Get on the motorcycle after you have started the engine. Sit as far forward as possible without crowding you. Hold firmly to your waist, hips, or belt. Keep both feet on the pegs at all times, even when the motorcycle is
stopped. Keep their legs away from the muffler. Stay directly behind you, leaning as you lean. Avoid any unnecessary talk or motion.

Also, be sure to tell your passenger to tighten his or her hold when you (1) approach surface problems, (2) are about to start from a stop, and (3) warn that you are going to make a sudden move.
Rilling With Passengers Your motorcycle will respond slower with a passenger on board. The
heavier your passenger, the longer it will take to slow down, speed up, or make a tum-especially on a light cycle. Here's what you should do to adjust for the difference in handling:
Go a little slower, especially when taking curves, comers, or bumps. Start slowing earlier as you approach a stop. Open up a larger cushion of space ahead and to the sides. Wait for larger gaps when you want to cross, enter, or merge with
traffic.
Remember, you should try to warn your passenger of special conditions ahead-when you will pull out, stop quickly, tum sharply, or ride over a bump. Otherwise, talk as little as possible. When you must talk, tum your head slightly to make yourself understood. But, be sure you don't tum your head too far. Never take your eyes off the road ahead.
0 CARRYING LOADS
Most motorcycles are not really designed to carry much cargo. However, small loads can be carried safely if they are positioned and fastened properly.
Keep the Load Low-Fasten loads to the seat, or put them in saddle bags. Do not pile loads against a sissybar or frame on the back of the seat. Placing a load high against a bar or frame raises the cycle's center of gravity and disturbs its balance.
Keep the Load Forward-Place the load over or in front of the rear axle. Tank bags are one way to keep loads forward, however, use caution when loading hard or sharp objects. Mounting loads behind the rear axle can affect how the motorcycle turns and brakes. It can also cause a wobble.
Distribute the Load Evenly-If you have saddle bags, make sure each is loaded with about the same weight. An uneven load can cause the motorcycle to drift to one side.
Secure the Load-Fasten the load securely with elastic cords (bungie cords). A loose load can catch in the wheel or chain. If that happens, the rear wheel may lock up and skid. Do not use rope as it tends to stretch and knots come loose permitting the load to shift or fall of
Check the Load-Stop and check the load every so often. Make sure it has not worked loose or moved.

"@ROUP RIDING

If you ride with others, you mu~t do it in a way that doesn't endanger anyone or interfere with the flow of traffic.

0 KEEP THE GROUP SMALL A large group tends to interfere with traffic. It makes it necessary for
cars to pass a long line of motorcycles at a time. Also, large groups tend to be separated easily by traffic or red lights. Those who are left behind often ride unsafely trying to catch up. If your group is larger than four or five riders, divide it into two or more smaller groups.

0 KEEP THE GROUP 'IUGETHER
Here are some ways to keep the group together:

Plan Ahead-If you are the leader, look ahead for changes. Give signals early so "the word gets back" in plenty of time. Start lane changes early enough to allow everyone to complete the change. Put Beginners up Front-Place inexperienced riders behind the leader, where they can be watched by more experienced riders. "Follow Those Behind"-I.et the tailender set the pace. Use your mirrors to keep an eye on the person behind. If he or she falls behind, slow down a little. If everyone does this, the group will stay with the tailende:t: Know the Route--.:Make sure everybody knows the route. Then, if someone is separated for a moment, he or she won't have to hurry to avoid getting lost or taking a wrong tum.

0 KEEP YOUR DISTANCE
It's important to keep close ranks and a safe distance. A close group takes up less space on the highway; is easier to see, and is less likely to be separated. However, it must be done properly.

Don't Pair Up-Never operate directly alongside another motorcycle

ride:t: If one of you has to avoid a car or something on the road there

would be no place to go. If you have to say something to another rider,

wait until you are both stopped-then it's okay to pull up alongside.

Staggered Formation-Riding in a "staggered" formation is the best

way to keep ranks close and yet maintain an adequate space cushion.

In a staggered formation, the leader rides to the left side of the lane,

while the second rider stays a little behind and rides to the right side

of the lane. A third rider would take the left position, a normal two-

second distance behind the first ride:t: The fourth rider would be a

normal two-second distance behind the second ride:t: This formation

keeps the group close and keeps each rider a safe distance from others

ahead, behind and to the sides.

,

A staggered formation can be used safely on an open highway. How-

.34

ever, it is best to move into a single file formation when taking curves, making turns, or entering or leaving a highway. Passing in Formation-When riders in a staggered formation want to pass, they should do it one at a time. First, the lead rider should pull out and pass when it is safe. After passing, the leader should return to the left position and continue riding at passing speed until he has opened up room for the next rider. As soon as the first rider has passed safely, the second rider should move up to the left position and watch for a safe chance to pass. After passing, this rider should return to the right position and open up room for the next rider.
Some people suggest that the leader should move to the right side after passing a vehicle. This is not a good idea. By taking up a rightside lane position, the leader would encourage the second rider to pass and cut back in before a large enough cushion of space has been opened up in front of the passed vehicle. It's much simpler and safer if each rider waits until there is enough room ahead of the passed vehicle to allow the rider to move into the same position held before the pass.
t

""(i:EING IN SHAPE TO RIDE
Riding a motorcycle is a demanding and complex task. To become a skilled rider, you must be able to give adequate attention to the riding environment and to the operation of the motorcycle, to identify potential hazards, to make good judgments, and to execute each decision quickly and skillfully. Your ability to perform at your best and to respond to changing road and traffic conditions is influenced by how fit and alert you are. Alcohol and other drugs, more than any other factor, degrade your ability to think clearly and to ride safely with as little as one drink. Let's examine the risks involved in riding after drinking and what to do to prepare to intervene to protect yourself and your fellow riders.
0 WHY THIS INFORMATION IS IMPORI'ANT
Alcohol is a major contributor to motorcycle accidents, particularly fatal accidents. Studies show that 40 to 45 percent of all riders killed in motorcycle accidents had been drinking. Only a third of these riders had a blood alcohol concentration above the legal limits. The rest had only a few drinks in their systems-enough to impair their riding skills.
The drinking problem is just as extensive among motorcyclists as it is among automobile drivers. However, motorcyclists are far more likely to be killed or severely injured in an accident. Injuries occur in 90 percent of alcohol-involved motorcycle accidents and only 33 percent of automobile accidents. On a yearly basis, 2,500 motorcyclists are killed and about 50,000 seriously injured in accidents involving alcohol. These statistics are too overwhelming to ignore.
Some people would never, under any circumstances, ride a motorcycle after drinking alcohol. Others are willing to take their chances, even when it means the odds are against them. The most effective way to improve your chances of riding safely is to become knowledgeable about the effects of alcohol and other drugs and to learn how to minimize the risks. There are positive steps you can take to protect yourself and to prevent others from injuring themselves.
0 ALCOHOL IN THE BODY
Alcohol enters the bloodstream quickly. Unlike most foods and beverages, it does not need to be digested. Within minutes after being consumed, it reaches the brain and begins to affect the drinket: The major effect alcohol has is to slow down and impair bodily functionsboth mental and physical. Whatever you do, you do less well after consuming alochol.
Blood Alcohol Concentration The more alcohol in your blood, the greater the degree of impairment.
Your body is able to eliminate alcohol at the rate of almost one drink per hout: If you are drinking at a rate greater than one drink an hour, alcohol

will begin to accumulate in your body. The amount of alcohol in the body is referred to as Blood Alcohol Concentration or BAC. Though prosecution for "Driving While Impaired" can start as low as .05 percent, actual abilities and judgment can be affected by as little as one drink.
Ill What Determines BAC Three factors determine BAC: The amount of alcohol you consume The number of hours you have been drinking Your body weight
The typical drink contains six-tenths of an ounce of alcohol. A 12ounce can of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or a shot ofliquor all contain the same amount of alcohol. BAC is determined in part by how much alcohol you have consumed.
The faster you drink, the more alcohol accumulates in your body. The body can only burn off one drink in an hour. Thus, if you drink two drinks an hour, at the end of that hour, one drink will be burned off and one will remain in your bloodstream. To figure out how many drinks are in the bloodstream, use the formula below:
Drinks consumed- hours= drinks left
A person drinking 8 drinks in 4 hours would have 4 drinks in hisjher system. 7 drinks in 3 hours would have 4 drinks in hisjher system.
Your weight is also a factor in determining BAC. A larger person will not accumulate as high a concentration of alcohol for each drink consumed. This is because they have more blood and other bodily fluids and BAC is the percent of alcohol in relation to other fluids in the body.
The best way to control BAC is to develop your own rules of thumb. People who are small in stature and weigh less than 120 pounds will generally become intoxicated with only three drinks in their system. For people with average weight (e.g. 140 - 180 lbs. ), four drinks in their system will produce a BAC of approximately .08 percent to .10 percent. People over 180 pounds can have as many as five drinks before becoming legally intoxicated according to the law. However, whether or not you are legally intoxicated is not the real issue. As you will see, impairment of skills begins well below the legal limit.
0 ALCOHOL AND THE LAW It is against the law to operate a motor vehicle while intoxicated. In
most states, a person with a BAC of .10 percent or above is considered intoxicated; in others the legal limit is .08 percent. It doesn't matter how sober you may look or act, the breath test is what usually determines whe'ther you are riding legally or illegally.

Your chances of being stopped for riding- under the influence of alaohol are increasing. Law enforcement has been stepped up across the aountry in response to the senseless deaths and injuries caused by drinking drivers:
Consequences of Conviction Many years ago, first offenders had a good chance of getting off with a
small fine and participation in drinking drivers classes. Today, the laws of most states impose stiff penalties on drinking drivers. And those penalties are mandatory, meaning that judges must impose them.
If you were convicted of riding while intoxicated, you could receive any of the following penalties:
License suspension-MaQdatory suspension for conviction, arrest or refusal to submit to a breath test. Fines-Severe fines are another aspect of a conviction usually levied in conjunction with a license suspension. Community service-Performing tasks such as picking up litter along the highway, washing cars in the motor vehicle pool, or working at an emergency ward. Costs-Additional costs such as lawyers' fees to pay; lost work time spent in court or alcohol education programs; public transportation costs (while your license is suspended); and the added psychological cost of being tagged a "drunk driver".
The Laws in Your State You should know the laws that apply to alcohol and the operation of a
motor vehicle. If you do not know, phone the local Department of Motor Vehicles.
0 ALCOHOL AND orHER DRUGS
IN MOIORCYCLE OPERATION No one is immune to the effects of alcohol. No matter how much friends may brag about their ability to hold their liquor, alcohol makes them less able to think clearly and to perform physical tasks skillfully. Alcohol has extremely harmful effects on the processes involved in motorcycle operation, and these effects begin long before you are legally intoxicated. Alcohol is not the only drug that affects your ability to ride safely. Many over-the-counter, prescription, as well as illegal drugs have side effects that increase the risks of riding. While it is difficult to accurately measure the involvement of any particular drug in motorcycle accidents, we do know what effects various drugs have on the processes involved in riding a motorcycle. We also know that the combined effects of alcohol and any drug are more dangerous than either is alone.
D MINIMIZING THE RISKS
One of the functions that alcohol affects first is your ability to judge

how well you are doing. This means that although you may be performing more and more poorly, you think you are doing better and better and you ride confidently into greater and greater risks. The best way to minimize the risks of drinking and riding is to take steps before you drink either to control your drinking or to control your riding.
Controlling Drinking Don't drink-Once you start, your resistance becomes weaker. Set a limit-Figure out beforehand how many drinks you can have over the time you plan to be drinking. Set a limit for yourself and stick to it. Pace yourself-Find other things to do besides drinking to slow down your rate of consumption.
Controlling Riding If you haven't controlled your drinking, you must control your riding.
Leave the bike home-When vou know you will be drinking, leave the bike at home so you won't be tempted to ride. Arrange another way to get home.
Wait-Once you have exceeded your limit, you will have to wait until your system eliminates the alcohol-one drink per hour. No other method wz1l work!
0 STEPPING IN TO PRo:rECT FRIENDS When people have had too much to drink to make a responsible
decision themselves, it is up to others to step in and keep them from taking too great a risk. No one wants to c:lo this-it's uncomfortable, embarrassing and thankless. You are rarely thanked for your efforts at the time. But the alternatives are often worse.
There are several ways you can step in to keep your friends from hurting themselves or wrecking their bikes.
Arrange a safe ride- Provide alternative ways for them to get home. Slow the pace of drinking-Direct them by involving them in 'other
activities. Keep them there-Use any excuse to keep them from getting on
their bike if they've had too much. Serve them food and coffee to pass the time. Explain your concerns for their risks of getting arrested or wrecking their motorcycle. II Keep the bike there-If you can't control the rider, control the bike. Take the keys or temporarily disable the bike (e.g., loosen or switch the plug leads enough so they won't fire).
It helps to enlist support from others when you decide to step in. The more people on your side, the easier it is to be firm and the harder it is for the drunk rider to resist. While you may not be thanked at the time, you will never have to say, "If only I had..."

Even small amounts of alcohol or other drugs can negatively effect your riding performance. Be sure of your abilities, by avoiding the mixing ofriding with either alcohol or drugs.
0 FATIGUE
Riding a motorcycle is much more tiring than driving a cat When you plan a long trip, bear in mind that you'll tire much sooner than you would in a car. Also remember that fatigue can affect your control of the cycle.
Here are some things you can do to keep from getting too tired:
Protect yourself from the elements. Wind, cold, and rain make you tire quickly. Dress warmly. A windshield is worth its cost if you plan to do a lot of long distance riding.
Limit your distance. Experienced riders seldom try to ride more than about six hours a day.
Take frequent rest breaks. Stop, and get off the cycle.

lXouR MOTORCYCLE
There are plenty of things on the highway that can cause you trouble. Your motorcycle should not be one of them. To make sure your motorcycle won't let you down: ( 1) start out with the right equipment, (2) keep it in a safe riding condition, and (3) avoid add-ons or modifications that make your cycle harder to handle.
D THE RIGHT EQffiPMENT First, make sure your motorcycle is right for you. It should "fit" you.
Your feet should be able to reach the ground while you are seated on the cycle.
Accidents are fairly common among beginning riders-especially in their first six months of riding. Don't try a "big bike" until you have a lot of riding experience.
No matter how experienced you may be, ride extra carefully on any bike that's new or unfamiliar to you. More than half of all accidents occur on cycles their riders have used for less than six months.
A few items of equipment are necessary for safe operation. At minimum, your cycle should have:
Headlight and taillight Front and rear brakes Turn signals Horn Two mirrors
D MOTORCYCLE CARE
A motorcycle needs more frequent attention than a car. A minor mechanical failure in a car seldom leads to anything more than inconvenience for the driver. When something goes wrong with a motorcycle, it may cause an accident.
The only way to head off problems before they cause trouble is to inspect your motorcycle carefully and often. If you find something wrong, fix it right away. In addition to the checks you should make before every trip, here are some checks you should make at least once each week:
Tires-Look for cuts or nails in the tread and cracks in the sidewalls. Check for excess or uneven tread wear. Tread problems can make the cycle hard to handle, especially on wet pavement. If the wear is uneven, have the wheels checked for balance and alignment. Check the air pressure with a gauge to make sure each tire is at the pressure recommended by the manufacturer. Improper air pressure can affect your cycle's braking and turning. Low pressure also, can lead to blowouts.

Wheels-Check the rims for cracks, dents, or rust. Check for missing or loose spokes on wire-spoked wheels. Lift each wheel off the ground and spin it, listening for noise and looking for out-of-line motion. Shake the wheel from side to side, checking for looseness. Cables-Check brake, clutch, and throttle cables for kinks or broken strands. Replace as necessary. Lubricate the control mechanisms at both ends of each cable. Oz1-Keep the oil up to the recommended level. Lack of oil can make your engine seize. Drive 'ltain-For a chain-driven cycle, make sure your chain is adjusted properly. Check the sprockets for worn or bent teeth. For a shaftdriven cycle, look for oil on the shaft unit. If the housing is greasy, check the grease level arid make sure any access plugs are fitted tightly. Fasteners-Check for loose or missing bolts, nuts, or cotter pins. It's easier to spot missing items if you keep the motorcycle clean. Brakes-Make sure the brakes are adjusted properly. If you hear a scraping sound when_stopping, check the brake system-linings, calipers, and linkage. For hydraulic brakes, check the fluid level. Lights-Check all lights for lens cracks or moisture inside the lens. Also look for rust spots on light reflectors. Hydraulic Systems-Those motorcycles with hydraulic clutches and brakes should have fluid levels checked routinely and fluids changed according to the manufacturers' recommendations. See your owner's manual. Coolant-On water-cooled motorcycles, the radiator and coolant reservoirs should be checked and serviced according to the owner's manual.

@_RNING YOUR LICENSE
Safe riding requires knowledge and skill. To earn your license, you must pass both a knowledge test and an on-cycle skill test.
These tests will cover the information, practices, and ideas from this manual. For example, you will be tested for your ability to:
111 Get and keep yourself and your motorcycle in safe condition. 111 Accelerate, brake, shift, and tum safely. Ill Help others see you and help you see and communicate with them. 111 Adjust speed and position to changes in traffic and riding
conditions. Ill Stop and tum quickly to cope with problems while riding.
To pass, you will have to study this manual thoroughly and practice the skills and techniques it discusses.
0 KNOWLEDGE TEST
Here are some study questions. They are the same kind of questions you will find on the knowledge test. See if you can complete them correctly. Answers are printed upside down at the bottom of the next page.
1. It is MOST important to flash your brake light to warn the driver behind that: A. He is following too closely. B. You will be slowing suddenly. C. There is a stop sign ahead.
2. The FRONT brake supplies how much of a cycle's total stopping power? A. About one-quarter. B. About one-half. C. About three-quarters.
3. In the situation pictured on page 44, the car is waiting to tum across your lane. You should slow down and: A. Make eye contact with the driver. B. Get ready to give way. C. Maintain speed and position.
4. The key to making a quick tum is: A. Shifting your weight quickly. B. Turning the handlebars quickly. C. Getting the cycle to lean quickly.
5. If you get a flat tire while riding, you should: A. Hold the handlegrips firmly and stay off the brakes. B. Shift your weight toward the good wheel and brake normally. C. Brake on the good wheel and pull off the road as soon as possible.

t
ON-CYCLE TEST During the on-cycle test, you will be graded on how safely you handle your motorcycle. For example, you may be tested on: Selecting safe speeds while going straight and turning. Picking the correct path and staying there. Making normal and quick stops. Making normal and quick turns. The examiner will score you on factors related to safety such as: Distance-e.g., Did you stop within the space allowed? Time-e.g., Did you tum fast enough to handle the situation? Position-e.g., Did you keep the cycle in the proper path? Procedure-e.g., Did you use both brakes to stop?
B-s ':)-v 'q- ':)-z 'q-1 :suv

LICENSE REQUIREMENTS
Eight requirements must be satisfied before a license will be issued. 1. Applicant must be a Georgia resident.
2. Applicant must furnish valid residence address.
3. Applicant must be 16 years old for Classes C and M: 18 years old for Classes A and B; 15 years old for Class C learners permit.
Special Note Concerning Minors ff you are under 18 years old, parental or guardian consent is necessary before issuance of the original license. Identification will be required of parents and/or proof of guardianship.
4. Applicant must surrender all out-of-state drivers license and instructional permits to the Examiner.
5. Unlicensed applicants must show some acceptable form of personal identification that includes full name, month, day and year of birth. After verification of full name and date of birth, documents will be returned immedi ately to the licensee. The following items are acceptable:
- Original birth certificate - Certified copy of birth certificate (with seal) - Certificate of birth registration - Certified copy of court records (adoption, name
changes or sex changes.) - Certified copy of school records - Certified naturalization records
- Immigration 1.0. card
- Valid Passport - Armed Forces discharge papers (00214) - Active Duty Military 1.0. card
6. Applicant should furnish social security card, if possible. Metal cards are not acceptable.
7. Applicant must successfully complete a driver examination which Is a test to determine their ability to operate a motor vehicle safely. The examination Includes an eye test; a road signs test; a road rules test for desired class; and an actual driving test In Classes C and M. A DPS36 is required in Classes A
and B.
a 8. The Department may require medical evaluation if an applicant has a
mental or physical condition that would prevent the safe operation of a motor
vehicle.

LICENSE FEES

Class C,M A,B Honorary (Veterans) National Guard Inmate Certificate Umited Pennit C - Instructional Pennit A, B, & M Instructional Permit A, B, C, or M (*Organ Donor) D (Provisional)

Valid 4 Years 4 Years 4 Years 4 Years 4 Years 1 Year (non-renewable) 1 Year 6 months 4 Years 4years

Fee $15.00 $15.00 No Fee No Fee No Fee $25.00 $10.00 $10.00 $ 8.00 $10.00

*Donor must execute a uniform donor card at the time of
issuance to receive the fee reduction.

WHERE TO GET A LICENSE AND RENEWALS

You can go to an examination station for your first Georgia driver's license and for any renewals or endorsements you wish to obtain. Driver's license are issued at Georgia Exam Stations with periodic visits to most county seats. You may renew your license as early as 150 days before your license expires. All driver's license, including veterans, active duty military personnel and dependents, expire on the birthday of the license holder in the year indicated on the license as the date of expiration. Please refer to the front cover of this booklet for a list of driver license offices. Renewal offices are located throughout the metro area. Please refer to the back cover of this book for a list of renewal offices.

Military personnel on active duty outside of Georgia may request a renewal of their driver's license, valid without photograph or signature, if verified in the specified manner described by the Department of Public Safety and accompanied by the correct fee. The same privilege is also extended to a military person's spouse and any licensed dependents living with the person while on duty in a foreign domain or in a state other than Georgia. The renewal without a photograph or signature will be granted for no longer than a four year period at the end of which the license holders must appear for renewals.

EXPIRED LICENSE

1. If your Georgia driver's license has expired for two years or more, your
driver's history has been purged, and you do not hold a valid out-of-state license, you must pass a road sign test; a road rules test; an actual driving test; and an eye test to obtain a Class C license. Additional testing will be required to obtain a Class M, B, or A license.

2. If your Georgia driver's license has expired, resulting in the purging of your driver's history, but you hold a valid out-of-state license, you must pass a road signs test; a road rules test; and eye test to obtain a Class C license.

REGARDING YOUR DRIVER'S LICENSE
Carrying and Displaying Your License
Your driver's license must be in your possession, when you drive, to be displayed to any police officer upon requesl
Name and Address Change
If you change your address, you must report to the nearest exam station and apply for a new IR::ense, showing correct address, within 60 days. Ifyou change your name by marriage orotherwise, you must also obtain a newlicense, showing correct name,
within 60 days. A replacement license, valid for the current renewal period, will be
issued once in any four year period, free of charge.
Lost or Destroyed License
Ifyourlicense is lostordestroyed, you must appearin person at an examining station, with proof of identity, to receive another license. Appropriate fee, same as renewal, will be required. Ifanother license cannot be issued.at that time, a temporary 30-day permit will be issued.
ORGAN DONOR PROGRAM
If a person desires to become an Organ Donor, an Organ Donor Card will be
furnished. Simply fill out and sign the uniform donor card, which is a legal document
when executed in the presence of two witnesses who also must sign.
- Organ donation can occur only after every measure has been taken to save your life, and only after death has been legally and medically declared.
- Georgia law prohibits the physician who declares a patient dead from participating in the removal or transplantation of that patient's donated organs or tissues.
- There is no cost to the donor's family for any expenses related to organ tissue/eye donation. Also, there is no delay in funeral arrangements.
- Donation is consistent with the beliefs of all major religions. - Georgia law requires hospitals to notify an organ/tissue/eye recovery
center when a donation is possible. - Recipients are selected by urgency of need, compatibility of blood type,
body size, and tissue type, regardless of sex, race or creed.
If you decide to become an organ/tissue/eye donor, you are asked to do two (2)
things: I. Discuss your wishes with your family. 2. Complete an Organ Donor Card and have it signed by two witnesses. (Since it Is customary to ask the next-of-kin for consent at the time of death, it Is suggested that two members of your family be your witnesses).
(The tests are available in MJme non-English languages. but all dtivet11 must show ability to read lU'Id understand simple EngliSh such as is used 1n highway trallit: and directional signs.)

MOTORCYCLE SKILL TEST
Safe motorcycle riding depends largely on your knowledge and skills. The skills for motorcycling require a lot of practice. If you have just learned to handle a motorcycle and have very little riding experience, then the most important part of learning to ride is still ahead. How~ver, before you go out on the street with other traffic, there are certain basic skills needed for your safety. To make sure you have the basic skills to ride, you will be given a riding test. When you report for your test you should have:
1. Clothing that covers your entire body.
2. An approved helmet and protective goggles.
3. You must furnish a motorcycle for the test and pass a safety inspection of the motorcycle by the license examiner before the driving test is given.

EXERCISE DESCRIPTIONS FOR APPLICANTS

T he Motorcyclist Licensing Skill Test is an offstreet riding test conducted by a licensing examiner. To pass the Motorcyclist Licensing Skill Test, you must complete three exercises. These three exercises assess basic motorcycle control, riding judgment, and hazard avoidance skills.

EXERCISE! Exercise 1 tests basic handling skills. Starting
from a full stop, you must accelerate in a straight line. Stabilize at a speed between 12-18 mph before you reach the first timing line. Then hold a steady throttle until you reach the end of the timing zone. At that point, you will .slow to a normal stop at a specific location. The stopping point will be marked.
Then you will continue to the right side of the course and complete a sharp, right turn within designated boundaries.
Your ability to accelerate, maintain a steady speed, ride in a straight line, brake smoothly, stop at a precise location and complete a sharp turn will be checked.

EXERCISE2

Exercise 2 tests your ability to determine an ac-

ceptable speed and remain safely within left and

right curved paths. During each run you must accel-

erate from a full stop and ride through the curve as

fast as you safely can.

Penalty points will be assessed according to the

speed travelled through the curve and whether a path

48

violation occurs.

The final exercise tests your ability to stop or swerve quickly. It is conducted on the same straightaway used in Exercise 1 and as many as six runs may be required.
Starting from a full stop, you will accelerate to a speed between 12-18 mph, hold a steady speed through the timing zone and perform the maneuver required.
Stopping performance is graded according to how far you travel after the center light comes on. No penalty points are assessed for skidding. Upon stopping, do not move the cycle until the examiner tells you to return to the starting point.
Quick swerves are scored by measuring how far from the center point of the obstacle avoidance line your rear tire is when it crosses. You should not brake during the swerves until you pass the obstacle line. Then straighten the cycle and stop. Wait for my signal before returning to begin another run.
PLEASE NOTE: You have the right to cancel the test at any time. lnfonn the examiner that you do not wish to continue the test. The examiner will explain the conditions for taking the test at a later date. The examiner also has the right to stop the test if you (a) fail to demonstrate basic control skills, (b) accumulate more than the maximum number of penalty points allowed, (c) commit any unsafe act (d) fail to understand or follow directions, or (e) fall or drop themotorcycle. In any of these instances, the test will be discontinued. Finally, all testing may be suspended due to inclement weather, equipment failure or other circumstances beyond the control ofyou or the examiner.
MOTORCYCLIST LICEN;>ING SKILL TEST COURSE LAYOUT

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LANE/TIMING ZONE BOUNDARIES

~ TIMING ZONES

[@8E2lli SIGNAL DEVICE 49
c~-~] 'EXAMINER TIMING POSTS

COMPULSORY LIABILITY INSURANCE
Effective July 1, 1983, all vehicles (including motorcycles) must furnish proof of insurance to the licensing authority that the vehicle is covered by either a liability policy or a Self-Insurance Certificate issued by the Department of Public Safety. Proof of insurance must be carried to be displayed to a law enforcement officer upon request.
MOTORCYCYLE OPERATOR LICENSE REQUIREMENTS
A Class M license or a Class M endorsement on another class of license is required to operate legally a motorcycle or motor-driven cycle in Georgia. Every motor vehicle having a saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, but excluding a tractor and moped, are defined as motorcycles. Georgia law places all types of motorcycles (including scooters, motorbikes and minibikes) into one classification. All are considered motor-driven cycles.
CLASS M - LICENSE REQUIREMENTS
1. Must be 16 years of age and have parental consent if under 18.
2.. Must successfully complete a motorcycle examination which includes a special road signs test, a special road rules test and an actual driving test on a motorcycle.
3. You must also pass a visual acuity test. lfthe vision test was administered and passed during the year, the eye test may be waived.
4. Ifthe applicant meets the established requirements for a Class M license, and he also possesses a Class C or combination of other classes of permits, that license must be surrendered and a photographic license containing the Class M endorsement will be issued. The applicant will not be given a refund for the remaining period of validity ofthe other license, but such endorsements would run concurrently with the Class M endorsement.
5. Safety equipment as required by law.
6. Will be licensed according to type of motorcycle. Applicants successfully passing the road/skill test on a two-wheeled motorcycle will receive an "U' restriction. Applicants completing a road test on a three-wheeled motorcycle (sidecar, trike, etc.) will receive a "X' restriction. "U" restricted licenses allow for the operation of all sized TWO-WHEELED motorcycles ONLY. "X" restricted licenses allow for the operation of all THREE-WHEELED motorcycles ONLY.

CLASS MP - LEARNERS PERMIT
All applicants must pass an eye test and an examination of motorcycle knowledge. An issued Class MP instruction permit is valid for 6 months, after which time the applicant may return to the issuing station and take a road test. It is not mandatory for a Class MP license applicant to obtain a Class MP Learners Permit before taking the Class MP examination. Restrictions for a Class MP instruction or learners permit are the following.
1. Must be at least 16 years old and have parental consent if under 18.
2. Motorcycle operation in daylight hours only.
3. No passengers allowed.
4. No limited access roadways.
5. Safety equipment as prescribed by law.
6. Issued according to type of motorcycle (two-wheeled or three-wheeled).
REQUIRED SAFETY DRESS
Helmet Protective headgear is required by law in Georgia. All helmets shall meet the minimum standards as established by the Georgia Department of Public Safety. The Georgia standards are in compliance with the standards on helmets as set forth by the American National Standards lnstitute-Z90.1. Your helmet should be comfortable and must be securely strapped on.
Eye Protective Devices: Eye protective devices must be worn by operators and passengers of all motorcycles either in the form of windshields, glasses, goggles. or face shields of safety glass or plastic lens. All eye protective devices shall meet the minimum standards as established by the Georgia Department of Public Safety. The Georgia standards in compliance with the standards on eye protective devices as set forth by the Vehicle Equipment Safety Commission-Regulation VESC-8. Contact lens are not acceptable as eye protective glasses.
Footwear. Some type of footwear other than socks must be worn by the operator and any passengers, riding a motorcycle, Common sense overrules riding with sandals and slippers. The best footwear is high-topped leather boots.
Protective Clothing: Clothing should be adequate to reduce injury in case of a spill or accident. Long sleeves, regular trousers (rather than shorts), and gloves will help reduce skin abrasions. The heavier the clothing, the more protection, leather provides the best protection. When riding at night it is safest to wear light colored clothing (white, yellow, orange) which will make you much more visible to other motorists.

Chapter 3 Signs, Signals and Markings

It is extremely important to obey signs and signals. To obey them you must be able to recognize them and understand what they mean.
Since research has shown that people react to symbols more quickly than words, Georgia has included signs which will communicate with symbols rather than words, in an effort to help drivers recognize and react to signs.
All drivers must obey official highway signs and traffic control signals unless otherwise directed by a police officer.

Shapes of Signs

There are seven basic shapes of signs with each shape having a different meaning. Know signs by their shapes and color so that you will know what to do at a distance.

STOP

An Octagon (eight-sided edge) always means stop. When you come t6 it, you must make a complete stop at a marked stop line. If there is no stop line, stop before entering crosswalk on your side of the intersection. If there is no crosswalk, stop at a point from which you can best see oncoming traffic. You must not start again until you yield the right-of-way to pedestrians or closely approaching traffic. If it is a four-way stop, wait your turn. In any case, you must wait until a safe interval occurs.

Triangle signs mean yield. You must slow down to a speed that is reasonab le for existing conditions and stop if necessary. If you must stop, do so at a marked stop line, if one exists. After slowing or stepping, you must yield the right-of-way to other vehicles in the intersection or approaching closely on another roadway or auxiliary road leading into a major highway.

Round signs mean railroad crossing. This sign is posted a few hundred feet in front of the tracks and tells you to look, listen and slow down, because you may have to stop. Roll down the car window and listen carefully, for if the wind is blowing in the wrong direction, you may not hear the train. If the train is approaching, stop! Don't try to figure time and distance. You'll never have another chance if you figure incorrectly.Passing is prohibited at a railroad crossing.

Diamond shaped signs warn of existing or possible hazards on roadways or adjacent areas. They are yellow with black letters or symbols. Pay attention to. these signs! They tell you what to expect ahead.

Pentagon shaped signs signify school zone and school crossing.When used, they will be erected not less than 150 feet nor more than 700 feet in advance of the school grounds or school crossing.

THRU
TRAFFIC

Horizontal Rectangular signs are generally used for guide lines. They show location, direction or other special information.

NO
PARKING
ON
PAVEMENT

Vertical Rectangularsigns are generally used for regulatory signs, which tell you what you must do. You must obey them in the same manner as traffic laws.
53

There are three official classifications of signs; Regulatory, Warning, and Guide.
REGULATORY SIGNS Regulatory signs tell the driver what they must do. Drivers, including those on bicycles, must obey them in the same manner as traffic laws. Remember, a red circle with a red slash from upper left to lower right means "No". The picture within the circle shows what is prohibited.

This marks a one-way roadwaywith traffic coming against you. You must not e,:,ter the one-way at this point.

WRONG
WAY
Motorist is approaching oneway highway or ramp.

0
ONE
WAY
-+ 0
You may travel only in the direction of the arrow.

You cannot turn around to go in the opposite direction at this intersection.

REDUCED SPEED AHEAD

You are approaching an area where a reduced speed limit has been established.

You cannot make a right turn at this intersection.

Trucks are prohibited from entering this roadway.

Bicycles are prohibited from entering this roadway.
SPEED LIMIT
55
55 miles per hour is the top speed permitted in this area.

Traffic is required to keep to the right of medians or obstructions.
NO RIGHT
TURN ON RED AFTER
STOP
After coming to a complete stop, a right turn is permitted but not at an intersection with this sign posted.

SLOWER TRAFFIC
KEEP RIGHT
When riding on a two-way four lane roadway, slower traffic should travel in the right (outside) lane.

SCHOOL
SPEED LIMIT
20
011 SCHOOl DAYS WH[N CHtlOitfN .WPII$(111
You are approaching a school zone where a reduced speed limit is in effect when yellow lights are flashing.

WARNING SIGNS
Warning signs are black and yellow. They alert you to conditions which are immediately ahead, and tell you what to look for. There may be road hazards, changes in direction or some other situation which will require action on your part.

Sharp turn to the right Curve to the right

Sharp turn to the right and then sharp turn to the left.

Winding road ahead

Another road crosses the highway ahead.

Side road enters highway ahead.

Side road enters highway ahead at an angle.

This sign warns there is no road straight ahead. Slow down and prepare to yield or stop before turning right or left.
This sign is on the left side of the highway and marks the beginning of a no passing zone. The pass must be completed before reaching this sign.

There is a stop sign ahead. Begin to slow down at this sign.

There is a yield sign ahead. Slow down and prepare to stop if necessary.

Room for only two lanes of traffic. Approach with caution.

There is a dip in the roadway. Slow down!

There is a bump in the road ahead. Slow down!

Shoulder of the road is soft. Drive off road only for emergency.

Warning of traffic signals at intersection ahead. Slowdown!

Approaching a divided highway. Keep to the right.

Divided highway ends. Get into the proper lane.

Warning that you are leaving a separated one-way highway
and will soon be driving on a two-way highway.

Number of lanes reduced ahead.

Approaching a low underpass. Don't enter if your load exceeds maximum height of sign.

Traffic merging right just ahead.
Steep hill ahead. Slow down and be ready to shift to lower gear to control speed and save brakes.

Roadway slippery when wet, first half-hour of rain most hazardous.

These signs alert drivers in advance of areas where animals, people and vehicles may be crossing.

CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE WARNING SIGNS
Warning signs for construction and maintenance projects are used to alert you to dangers ahead and give you enough time in which to adjust your speed accordingly. These signs are orange and black.

ROAD CLOSED

SERVICE SIGNS
As you travel along Georgia's highways, the following blue and white signs will give advance notice of service facilities located along the route.

Road Side Pari< and Rest Area

FOOD - PHONE GAS - LODGING
HOSPITAL CAMPING SECOND RIGHT

GUIDE SIGNS
Guide signs are your best friend when you are driving, especially if you are away from home. They tell you where you are, what road you are on, and how to get to where you wish to go. Many guide signs are rectangular, but some have other shapes as shown for interstate signs. There are several different kinds of guide signs - route markers, information, destination, distance, and location signs. Here are some examples:

INTERSTATE
S lA ' t
75

U.S. Route Marker

Milepost markers are placed each mile along the edge of the roadway from one end of the state to the other. Zero always starts at the south or west borders where the route begins.

;---- --

Intersection U.S. Route 47 & Ga. 38. These roads are going to cross or meet the _:...:..:.>!.:..:.h.w:..::a.:.:y you are using.

44

JUNCTION
m

EXIT
.;,

The numbers on these signs designate specific exits.

Look for this sign when you want to park. It points to a nearby public parking area.
~
BIKE ROUTE
This sign is used to mark an officially designated bicycle trail, watch for cyclists if you are on this road.

The crossbuck is placed at all railroad crossings. Yield to any approaching trains. Slow down, look and listen before crossing . A sign below the crossbuck indicates the number of tracks. A complete stop is required when a red light is flashing.
Caution - a vehicle displaying this emblem is a slow moving vehicle. A slow moving vehicle is defined as any vehicle moving less than 25 miles per hour. They are required by law to display this emblem.

TRAFFIC SIGNALS Traffic signals are placed at intersections to control the orderly movement of traffic and to prevent accidents. Drivers (including bicyclists) and pedestrians must obey these signals except when an officer is directing traffic.
A red light means you must make a complete stop before entering the crosswalk or intersection and wait until the light turns to green before proceeding.
A yellow light warns the light is changing from green to red. Slow down and prepare to stop.
A green light means you may proceed if it is safe to do so after yielding to pedestrians and vehicles within the intersection.
A green arrow means you may proceed carefully only in the direction the arrow is pointing after yielding to pedestrians and vehicles within the intersection. In this case you may go straight ahead only.
A green arrow, in this case, means you may turn in the direction of the arrow.
A yellow arrow may appear after a green arrow and warns you to clear the intersection.
A red flashing light means you must stop completely then proceed with caution.
A yellow flashing light means you must slow down and exercise caution before proceeding thr~ugh the intersection.

LANE CONTROL SIGNALS

Don't use lane, traffic approaching

"Steady" - clearthe lane " Flashing" - left turn permitted.

OVERHEAD LANE SIGNS

Travel in lane

~
ONLY
Must turn left

Either left or proceed straight. Right turn proh ibited .
PEDESTRIAN SIGNALS

('
ONLY
Must turn right

Leave the curb to cross street

"Flashing" do not leave curb butcompletecros-
sing

Do not leave curb

Stop Lines
Stop lines are white lines painted across the pavement at intersections indicating the exact place to stop.ln urban areas the line is usually located about four teet before the crosswalk. Drivers must come to a complete stop at the stop line, when present, not at the stop sign or traffic control signal.
Crosswalk Lines
These white lines are painted across or partially across the pavement. When pedestrians are in these crosswalks, they have the right-ofway over motor vehicles. Crosswalks are sometimes in the middle of the block in residential areas, and in this case, a pedestrian crossing sign is located at the white line.
Railroad Crossings and Crossbucks
In the front of railroad crossings, the pavement is sometimes marked with a large X and two RR's. This is known as a crossbuck. At railroad crossings a yellow line is always placed on the right side of the center line to prevent passing. The crossing is sometimes equipped with control arms and/or emergency lights, to warn the driver of approaching trains. The driver of the vehicle must stop if the warning signals say a train is approaching.

PAVEMENT MARKINGS
Pavement markings, like highway signs, are used to warn and direct drivers to regulate traffic. As with highway signs, pavement markings are also being changed to meet U.S. Department of Transportation requirements. As old markings wear out, they will be repainted as described below.
Center Lines
These are used to separate traffic moving in opposite directions on paved roadways. Broken yellow lines are used when there are only two lanes.
No Passing lines
These are the single, solid yellow lines on twolane roads which indicate zones where passing is prohibited. These single, solid yellow lines will be located on the right of the broken yellow line when they apply to you.
Edgeltnes
These are the solid white lines along the side of the pavement. They serve as safety guides, especially at night when it is difficult to see the edge of the road. A yellow edge line may be used on the left side to warn of narrow or raised medians.
Lane Lines
These are the white dashes which divide streets and highways having more than one lane for traffic moving in the same direction.
When there are four or more lanes with traffic moving in opposite directions, two solid yellow lines mark the center of the roadway. You may cross these lines only to make a left turn into or from an alley, private road, driveway, or other street.

TURN LANES
This lane, solid yellow and broken yellow, is in the center of streets and highways to make left turns. A vehicle desiring to turn left should proceed to the turn lane just prior to making left turn.

1------- ------

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re-
I
I
TRAFFIC STRIPING These markings, diagonal yellow lines, are on streets and highways indicating that the road is narrowing or there is an obstruction on the roadway. The area is similar to a triangle with solid. yellow diagonal lines within the outside lines. Always keep to right of markings. If traffic striping is white, passing is permitted on either side of marking.
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Drivers License Renewal Locations
Renewals Only are available inside the foUo'fting Kroger locations:
590 Cascade Road ..................................... Atlanta 3030 Headland Drive, S.W. . ............................. Atlanta 725 Ponce de Leon Avenue .............................. Atlanta 2685 Stewart Avenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlanta 2361 West Broad Street ................................. Athens 2801 Washington Road ................................ Augusta 3479 Memorial Drive .................................. Decatur 2385 Wesley Chapel Road .............................. Decatur 3251 Highway 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Douglasville 8059 Tara Boulevard .... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jonesboro 455 Grayson Highway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lawrenceville 4155 Lawrenceville Highway ............................. Lilburn 4875 Floyd Road .................................... Mableton 2100Roswel1Road ................................... Marietta 30 I Jonesboro Road ................................ McDonough 1294 Morrow Industrial Boulevard ....................... Morrow 564 Crosstown Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peachtree City 10779 Alpharetta Highway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roswell 440 I Shallowford Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roswell 227 Sandy Springs Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sandy Springs 318 Mall Boulevard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Savannah 4002 Highway 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Snellville 5567-C Memorial Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stone Mountain 3959;.A Lavista Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tucker
Renewals Only are also available at the foUowing locations:
Eisenhower Parkway, Macon Mall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macon 3275 N. Berkeley Lake Road ............................. Duluth 7545 North Main Street, Building 300 .................. Woodstock
Commercial Driving Tests are available at tbe following locations:
Post 06 - I0 lO Aviation Boulevard ..................... Gainesville Post 25 - 172 Bob Kirk Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thomson Post 33- 200 Carl Vinson Road ..................... Milledgeville

MOTORCYCLES MAKE SENSESO DOES PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
They are inexpensive to operate, tun to ride and easy to park. Unfortunately, many riders never learn the critical skills needed to ride safely.
Professional training for beginning and experienced riders prepares them for real world traffic situations. Motorcycle Rider Courses teach and improve activities such as
effective turning braking maneuvers protective apparel selection obstacle avoidance traffic strategies maintenance
FOR THE BEGINNING OR EXPERIENCED RIDER COURSE NEAREST YOU CALL TOLL FREE
800-245-4410

Locations